Rome covers almost one-third of the Lazio region and is the capital of Italy. Rome’s history spans more than two and a half thousand years. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome around 753 BC, the area has been inhabited for much longer according to historians, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe.
Rome covers almost one-third of the Lazio region and is the capital of Italy. Rome’s history spans more than two and a half thousand years. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome around 753 BC, however, the area has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe.
After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome gradually came under the political control of the Papacy and continued under their rule until 1870.
Rome was a major world center of the Renaissance, second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. A masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo. During this period, the great aristocratic families of Rome used to build opulent dwellings like the Palazzo del Quirinale (now seat of the President of the Italian Republic), the Palazzo Venezia, the Palazzo Farnese, the Palazzo Barberini, the Palazzo Chigi (now seat of the Italian Prime Minister), the Palazzo Spada, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and the Villa Farnesina.
Many of the famous city’s squares – some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks, got their present design during the Renaissance and Baroque. The principal ones are Piazza Navona, Piazza di Spagna, Campo de’ Fiori, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Farnese, Piazza della Rotonda and Piazza della Minerva. One of the most best examples of Baroque art is the Fontana di Trevi by Nicola Salvi. Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama, now the seat of the Italian Senate and the Palazzo Montecitorio, now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.
Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals. The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. The most notable of these are the Villa Borghese, Villa Ada, and Villa Doria Pamphili. In the area of Trastevere the Orto Botanico (Botanical Garden) is a cool and shady green space. The old Roman hippodrome (Circus Maximus) is another large green space: it has few trees, but is overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden (‘roseto comunale’). The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks. Overlooking Piazza del Popolo and the Spanish Steps are the gardens of Pincio and Villa Medici.
Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical. The city has had fountains for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water in the past.
Rome has an extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades.
Experience Rome via this entertaining video from Travel & Leisure: ROMA
Much of Rome’s cuisine comes from traditions that were based on poverty: people ate what they could get their hands on, the stuff the wealthy considered inedible and tossed away. In fact, many of the foods Romans today consider “Roman” are in fact based on old Jewish Roman cuisine.
Artichokes – are thistles and were not considered a very edible plant long ago. Ox-tail stew – is the leftover from a larger, meatier animal. Zucchini flowers – are the part of the vegetable you threw away. Today, you find zucchini flowers everywhere in Roman cuisine, and it’s considered a delicacy: pizza topped with zucchini flowers, stuffed zucchini flowers and spaghetti and clams with zucchini flowers are some classic examples of typical Roman foods.
The quinto quarto refers to all the parts of an animal that are not considered “meat”: tripe, intestines, brains etc. This is also called “offal” and for those who love it, know where to get the best of it in Rome.
Fried appetizers are popular and include stuffed zucchini flowers (fiori di zucca), stuffed fried olives (olive ascolane), potato croquettes, other fried vegetables and battered and fried salted cod (baccalà.)
Bruschetta, topped with either tomatoes and a drizzle of olive oil, with some garlic or basil, or topped with a spread, such as artichokes, olives or truffles.
Pasta in Rome is typically long, such as spaghetti, fettucine, tagliatelle or tagliolini; or short dried pasta such as farfalle (little bow ties), rigatoni or penne. Typical Roman pastas are amatriciana, cacio e pepe, gricia and carbonara.
Soups (minestre), often of legumes and grains. For example “zuppa di farro” is a vegetarian soup made with spelt, a thick chewy grain. Another classic is “minestra di ceci e vongole”, which is a soup of chickpeas and clams (other shellfish are used as well.)
Meat dishes in Rome are mostly beef, pork and lamb. But especially beef. One classic Rome dish is beef straccetti, which are thin strips of beef, slowly cooked in their own juices, and then served alone on a plate, served with parmesan cheese, arugula (rocket) or artichokes. You will also typically find beef served as a simple grilled steak, or as a “tagliata”, which means, a steak that gets sliced just as it comes off the grill.
A classic Roman meat dish is lamb “scottaditto”, which means, lamb chops served so hot and crispy, they burn your fingers.
There is a lot of pork in Roman cuisine and, very often, in pasta sauces such as amatriciana, gricia and carbonara. Two very common pork dishes in Rome are “porchetta”, a baby pig stuffed with herbs and slowly cooked; and “maialino”, which is very tender, slowly baked baby pig.
Stracciatella (Egg Drop Soup)
- 1.5 quarts chicken broth
- 3 eggs
- 3 tablespoons grated parmigiano-reggiano cheese, plus more for garnish
- 3 tablespoons breadcrumbs
Heat the broth to boiling and set aside 3 tablespoons of the hot broth in a mixing bowl.
Beat 3 eggs in a separate bowl. Add the grated cheese and the bread crumbs.
Add the reserved 3 tablespoons of broth and beat until creamy.
Return the broth to boiling.
Pour the egg mixture into the boiling broth. Whisk vigorously with a fork to break up the egg into small strips.
Cook for about 3 more minutes, stirring continuously.
Remove the pot from the heat and immediately pour into serving bowls. Sprinkle with more parmesan and freshly grated nutmeg.
Beef Tagliata Salad
- 1 tender steak, such as rib-eye or T-bone
- Sea Salt & freshly ground black pepper
- 2 handfuls arugula
- Small block of Parmigiano Reggiano
- Extra virgin olive oil
- Lemon cut in half
Lightly season the beef with salt and then place on the grill and cook for five minutes on each side, Remove the steak to a plate and allow it to rest for another five minutes.
Once rested slice the meat diagonally with a sharp knife into thin slices, drizzle a little olive oil over the meat and sprinkle with sea salt.
Arrange the beef between two plates. Place the arugula into a bowl and dress with a little olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Scatter the leaves around and over the beef.
Shave the Parmesan into thin strips and sprinkle over the beef. Drizzle with olive oil and serve with a half lemon.
- 8 oz. bucatini or spaghetti pasta
- 1 tablespoon olive oil
- 100 g or 3.5 oz. guanciale or pancetta (about ¾ cup diced)
- 100 g grated pecorino romano (about ½ cup)
- 1 yellow onion, diced
- One 14 oz. can Italian plum tomatoes
- ½ tsp. hot pepper flakes, or more to taste
Place a large pot of water on the stove to boil. Put in a small handful of large-grain salt.
Dice the guanciale into medium cubes, about 1/2 inch.
Saute the guanciale and hot pepper in the olive oil in a pan over medium heat. As soon as the fat becomes translucent, remove the meat and place on a paper towel to drain.
Add onions to the rendered fat and saute, stirring constantly, until translucent.
Add the tomatoes and the guanciale. Simmer on low heat about 5 minutes.
When the salted water comes to a boil, add the pasta. Cook the pasta 1 minute less than the package states.
Drain the pasta and add it to the pan with the sauce. Toss in the sauce and add the pecorino romano, stirring constantly so that the melted cheese coats the pasta.
Remove from heat and serve immediately with additional grated pecorino for sprinkling on top.
- 1 tablespoon olive oil
- 2 pounds oxtail, cut into 2-inch sections
- 1 tablespoon salt
- 1 small onion, roughly chopped
- 1/2 carrot, diced
- 2 celery stalks, roughly chopped
- 4 cloves garlic, peeled and halved
- 1/2 cup red wine
- 28 ounces Italian tomatoes, peeled and chopped
- About 3 cups beef stock
- 1 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
- 4 cloves
In a heavy-bottom saucepot, heat the olive oil.
Season the oxtail pieces with salt, browning each side of the pieces. Remove; set aside.
Add the onions and a pinch of salt to the pan. Sweat the onions until they are translucent, about 5 minutes.
Add the carrots, cooking until tender, about 5 minutes. Add the celery and garlic. Cook 3 minutes more.
Add the oxtail pieces back to the pot. Deglaze with the wine over high heat, cooking about 2 minutes.
Add the tomatoes; bring to a boil. Continue boiling to cook off some of the tomato water.
Add the beef stock just to cover the meat, then the pepper and cloves.
Bring to a boil. Once it boils, lower the heat to a simmer, cover with a circle of parchment paper, and cook for 4 hours (stirring occasionally).
Once the oxtail is tender, remove the pieces to a serving dish. Cover with aluminum foil; set aside.
Strain the sauce, pressing down on the vegetables to extract all the juices.
Skim all the fat off the top, and pour into a smaller saucepan. Bring to a boil and cook, reducing by 1/4.
Taste for seasoning. Pour the sauce over the oxtail and serve
Grosseto is considered to be the most beautiful of all the Tuscan provinces. Located at the southern tip of Tuscany, the province is often referred to as the heart of Tuscany and its beauty is well known throughout Italy. The area is home to picturesque towns, natural parks, beaches and excellent, award-winning wines.
“Le Biancane” is a Nature Park with in the Colline Metallifere located in the province. The Park represents one of the many sites where geothermal activity has modified the landscape. Here energy lies in the earth and vapour emissions rise from the ground. Because of these geological and climatic characteristics, an atypical flora has developed in this area. The name biancane comes from the white color of the rocks that characterizes the entire landscape. The hydrogen sulphide emissions, in fact, erupt from geysers in the ground and turn the limestone into gypsum. The steam that comes out of the rocks is responsible for the characteristic smell of rotten eggs.
The province is also rich with culinary traditions, such the Slow Food Movement and, although it is prevalent all over the world today, the movement was actually born in Italy. Slow Food began with the founding of its forerunner organization, Arcigola, in 1986 to resist the opening of a McDonald’s near the Spanish Steps in Rome. At its heart is the aim to promote local foods and traditional cuisine and food production.
The Slow Food Movement was not, and still is not, only about food, but about life choices. Since its inception, the group has been embracing the values and the lifestyle many Italians associate with their grandparents and their way of life, which is the ultimate goal of “promoting the idea of food as a source of pleasure, culture, history, identity and of a true lifestyle, as well as a way of eating, which is respectful of the land and of local traditions”. (http://www.slowfood.com)
Italian Slow Food Recipes
- 25 g (1 oz) fresh yeast
- Pinch of sugar
- 310 ml (1 1/4 cups) of water
- 500 g (1 lb, 2 oz) bread flour
- 2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil
- 2 tablespoons of salt
Put the yeast into a bowl with a pinch of sugar. Stir in the water* and leave it to ferment.
Put the flour in a large, wide bowl, or onto a flat surface where you can work with it. Add the yeast, a pinch of salt, and the oil, and mix in to incorporate them well.
Knead the dough for about 10 minutes, until you have a smooth, compact elastic ball. Add a little more flour or water if necessary.
Put the dough into a lightly floured bowl, cover with a cloth, and leave it to rise in a warm place for about an hour and a half, or until it has doubled in size.
Preheat oven to 200°C (400°F). Put some oil onto a wide baking pan and spread out the dough with your fingers.
Bake for 20 minutes and while the flatbread is still warm, brush over it with as much olive oil as you prefer and a bit of kosher salt.
Tip* The water must be tepid. To make schiacciata successfully, you should never use extreme temperatures.
- Onion (1)
- Celery (about 2 stalks)
- Carrots (about 2)
- Parsley (one bunch)
- Zucchini (2 medium)
- Potatoes (2 medium)
- Beets (one bunch)
- Kale (about 1 pound/ 400 g)
- Head cabbage (1 ½ pounds/ 700 g)
- Cannellini beans (about 1 pound/ 400 g)
- Tomato puree (a glass)
- Wild herbs: such as borage leaves, nettles and plantain (few leaves)
- Aromatic herbs (a bunch): fennel, thyme, marjoram, oregano
- Salt and pepper to taste
- Extra virgin olive oil
Boil the beans in abundant water until tender. Drain them (keeping the water), blend half the beans in a food processor and keep 1/2 of the beans whole.
Chop the vegetables into small chunks.
Sauté the onions, celery, parsley and carrots in a pot with extra virgin olive oil.
Add the herbs whole and remove after a few minutes.
Add the potatoes and the rest of the vegetables and sauté for a few minutes.
Add the tomato puree, salt and pepper.
Add the reserved bean liquid and the purèed beans and let the soup cook at a low temperature for an 2 hours. Add the whole beans and heat. Serve or cool and refrigerate.
Wild Boar Stew (Cinghiale in Umido)
- 2 ¼ pounds/1 kg wild boar
- ½ pound/200 g onions
- ¼ pound/100 g celery
- Bay leaves, rosemary, juniper berry
- A half glass of wine
- Extra virgin olive oil
- Salt, pepper, chili
- Meat stock
- 2/3 pound/ 300 g of peeled tomatoes
Soak the wild boar overnight in water and vinegar with the juniper, bay leaves, celery and rosemary.
Finely chop the onion and celery and sauté in a pan with extra virgin olive oil.
Drain the wild boar and add to the pan and sauté for a few minutes.
Add salt, pepper and chili and sprinkle with wine and let evaporate.
Add the tomato, cover with the meat stock and cook for about one hour and a half.
Wild Boar Sauce Over Pappardelle Pasta
Once the meat is cooked, chop it fine and return it to the sauce. The sauce is traditionally served over wide egg-based pasta, such as Pappardelle.
Arista: Roast Pork
- 2-3 lb lean pork loin
- 3 cloves garlic finely chopped
- Salt and pepper
- Fresh rosemary finely chopped
- 1/4 cup of extra-virgin olive oil
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F/180 degrees C.
Mix the rosemary, garlic, salt and pepper together and rub the pork loin with this mixture. Make short incisions in six places in the meat (use a knife) and stuff a little of the mixture into each opening.
Tie the meat tightly using kitchen twine.
Put the pork loin into a baking pan with some extra virgin olive oil.
Place in the oven and cook for about 1 1/2 hours turning the meat every so often.
Cut the roast into thin slices and serve it with its pan sauce.
Frittelle di Riso
- 2-1/2 cups short grain rice
- 6 cups milk
- 4 tablespoons sugar
- Peel of one lemon (wide strips)
- 1 ounce liqueur (sherry, brandy, or amaretto)
- 1 cup flour
- 1 tablespoon baking flour
- Pinch of salt
- 6 eggs, separated
- Olive oil for frying
Bring the rice, sugar, lemon peel and milk to a slow boil. The rice is cooked when all the milk is absorbed.
Place the rice in large bowl, add the liqueur, egg yolks, flour, baking powder and salt.
Mix well and let cool. DO NOT REFRIGERATE.
Whip the egg whites until stiff. Fold the whites into the rice mixture.
In a heavy pan, heat 3 inches of oil for frying. Drop teaspoons of dough into the hot oil.
Fry quickly and remove when they are golden. Do not brown. Drain on paper towels and serve sprinkled with granulated sugar.
They are best hot, but can also be served cold or reheated.