As of January 2018, the largest population of French American people live in the state of Maine. French Americans also live in Louisiana where the largest French-speaking population in the U.S. is found in St. Martin Parish. Country-wide, there are about 10.4 million U.S. residents that declare French ancestry or French Canadian descent, and about 1.32 million speak French at home as of the 2010 census. An additional 750,000 U.S. residents speak a French-based creole language.
While Americans of French descent make up a substantial percentage of the American population, French Americans are less visible than other similarly sized ethnic groups. This is due in part to a tendency of French American groups to identify more closely with “New World” regional identities such as Acadian, Brayon, Cajun, or Louisiana Creole. Unlike other immigrants who came to the United States from other countries, some French Americans arrived prior to the founding of the United States. In many parts of the country, like the Midwest and Louisiana, they were the founders of some of the villages and cities and were often the state’s first inhabitants.
French immigrants introduced a wide range of interesting foods to America. For example, French Americans made the first yeast bread and brought technical farming skills that vastly improved American rice and wine. Huguenots grew and prepared the first okra, artichokes, and tomatoes. The popularity of French cuisine took off in the 1780s, following the alliance between France and the United States during the American Revolution. Many respected French chefs, such as Arthur Goussé in Los Angeles, immigrated to the United States and established restaurants. A number of French culinary terms remain prominent in modern times, including bouillon, purée, fricassée, mayonnaise, pâté, hors d’oeuvres, bisque, filet, sauté, casserole, au gratin, and à la mode.
Extra-virgin olive oil, garlic, and tomatoes form the basis of Provencal cuisine. This trio appears in sauces, soups, and salads, and as companions for dozens of fish, pasta and meat courses. The combo is often enhanced with fresh herbs, including parsley, oregano, fennel, basil and rosemary, as well as black Nicoise olives, capers, shallots or leeks. The stew below is classic French cuisine where beef and vegetables are simmered in red wine.
Slow-Cooked Provençal Beef Stew
Serve the stew with homemade biscuits.
2 scallion tops (about 6 inches long)
1 bay leaf
1 medium celery stalk
2 sprigs fresh parsley, with stems
3 sprigs fresh thyme
One 2-inch-long strip orange peel
2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
2 ounces bacon
2 pounds beef stew meat, such as chuck, trimmed and cut into 1 1/2-inch pieces
1 1/2 teaspoons kosher salt, divided
3/4 teaspoon freshly ground pepper, divided
1 large, red onion, chopped
2 cloves garlic, chopped
4 large carrots, sliced into 1/2-inch rounds
1 tablespoon tomato paste
1/2 pound mixed mushrooms (I used portabella and cremini), halved if small, quartered if large
1/2 bottle (375 ml) full-bodied red wine, such as Burgundy or Pinot Noir
2 cups of water
1/4 cup chopped fresh parsley
Freshly grated zest of 1/2 orange
Preheat the oven to 250°F.
To assemble the bouquet garni: Place one scallion top on the counter. Top with bay leaf, celery stalk, parsley sprigs, thyme sprigs, and orange peel. Place the second scallion leaf on top and tie the bundle together in four spots with kitchen string. Set aside.
To prepare the stew: Place the bacon in an ovenproof Dutch oven over medium-high heat and cook until barely brown, 1 to 2 minutes. Transfer to a paper towel-lined plate, leaving any drippings in the pot. When cool break into small pieces.
Add 1 tablespoon of oil to the pan. Add half the beef cubes (do not crowd the pot) and cook until browned on all sides. Transfer to a large bowl and season with 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper. Repeat with the second batch of meat, salt, and pepper.
Add 1 tablespoon oil to the pot and add the onions and garlic. Cook, stirring, until the onions are tender, 3 to 4 minutes. Add carrots and cook, stirring, until they begin to soften, 4 to 5 minutes. Stir in the tomato paste. Season with the remaining salt and pepper. Transfer the mixture with a slotted spoon to the bowl with the beef.
Add mushrooms and cook, stirring occasionally, until they are tender, 5 to 7 minutes. Transfer to a small bowl; set aside.
Pour wine and water into the pot and bring to a boil, scraping up any browned bits. Return the browned beef, the carrot mixture and the reserved bacon to the pot. Press down on the beef and vegetables, making sure to submerge them completely in the liquid; if necessary, add just enough hot water to make sure they are covered. Place the bouquet garni on top.
Cut a piece of parchment paper to fit the pot and press it directly on top of the stew, covering it completely. Transfer the stew to the oven and cook, with the lid off, until the beef is tender enough to cut with a fork, about 3 1/2 to 4 hours. Check every hour to be sure the ingredients stay submerged in liquid during the entire cooking time. If too much wine evaporates, add a little hot water to make up for the loss. During the last 15 minutes of cooking, stir in the reserved mushrooms.
Remove and discard the bouquet garni. Combine chopped parsley and orange zest in a small bowl and scatter on top of the stew just before serving.
Chinese immigrants to the US in the 19th century worked as laborers, particularly on transcontinental railroads such as the Central Pacific Railroad. They also worked as laborers in mining and suffered racial discrimination at every level of society. In 1924 US law barred further entries of Chinese and those already in the United States had been ineligible for citizenship since the previous year. Also by 1924, all Asian immigrants (except people from the Philippines (annexed by the United States in 1898) were excluded by law, denied citizenship and naturalization, and prevented from owning land. In many Western states, Asian immigrants were even prevented from marrying Caucasians.
In the 1940s when the United States and China became allies during World War II, the situation for Chinese Americans begin to improve, as restrictions on entry into the country, naturalization, and mixed marriage were lessened. In 1943, Chinese immigration to the United States was once again permitted—by way of the Magnuson Act—thereby repealing 61 years of official racial discrimination against the Chinese. However, large-scale Chinese immigration did not occur until 1965 when the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 lifted national origin quotas. After World War II, anti-Asian prejudice began to decrease, and Chinese immigration increased. Currently, the Chinese constitute the largest ethnic group of Asian Americans (about 22%) in the US. As of the 2010 census, there are more than 3.3 million Chinese in the United States, about 1% of the total population. The influx continues, where each year ethnic Chinese people from the People’s Republic of China, Taiwan and to a lesser extent Southeast Asia move to the United States.
Foundations for American Chinese cuisine were brought by immigrants from the southern province of Guangdong, the origin of most Chinese immigration before the restriction of immigrants from China in 1924. These Chinese families developed new styles and used readily available ingredients, especially in California. The type of Chinese American cooking served in restaurants was different from the foods eaten in Chinese American homes. Of the various regional cuisines in China, Cantonese cuisine had been the most influential in the development of American Chinese recipes. Stir-frying, pan frying, and deep frying tended to be the most common Chinese cooking techniques used in American Chinese cuisine, which are all easily done using a wok (a Chinese frying pan with bowl-like features that can withstand very high cooking temperatures. It wasn’t until the 1960s and 1970s that the United States got its first taste of “authentic” Chinese cuisine. The 1960s brought new arrivals from Hong Kong, Taiwan, and the Mainland, who in turn brought with them the foods they had enjoyed in areas like Hunan, Sichuan, Taipei, and Shanghai. Today, according to the Chinese American Restaurant Association, there are over 45,000 Chinese restaurants currently in operation across the United States.
Here are two of my favorite recipes.
Sichuan Peppercorn Shrimp
Adapted from Sang Yoon, Los Angeles Chef
1 ½ teaspoons Sichuan peppercorns
1 pound large shrimp—shelled, deveined and butterflied
2 tablespoons peanut oil
2 scallions: 1 finely chopped, 1 thinly sliced
2 garlic cloves, minced
1 large or 2 small jalapeño peppers, halved, seeded and thinly sliced
2 whole dried Tien Tsin chile peppers
1 tablespoon fresh lime juice
Sesame oil, for drizzling
In a small skillet, toast the peppercorns over moderate heat until fragrant, about 30 seconds; let cool. Transfer the peppercorns to a mortar or spice grinder and grind to a powder. Put the shrimp in a bowl, toss with 1 teaspoon of the ground peppercorns and season with sea salt.
In a medium skillet, heat 1 tablespoon of the peanut oil. Add the shrimp and stir-fry over moderate heat until almost cooked through, 4 minutes. Transfer to a plate.
Heat the remaining 1 tablespoon of peanut oil in the skillet. Add the chopped scallions, garlic, jalapeños and chile and cook over moderate heat, stirring, until the scallions and garlic are softened, 5 minutes. Add the remaining 1/2 teaspoon of ground peppercorns and cook, stirring, for 1 minute. Add the shrimp and lime juice and stir until the shrimp are just cooked through 1 minute. Remove Chinese chile. Transfer to a bowl; garnish with the sliced scallion, drizzle with the sesame oil and serve.
Adapted from David Chang, New York City Chef
4 cups cooked white rice or cauliflower rice
4 thick slices bacon, diced
½ cup onion, finely chopped
½ cup celery, finely diced
2 teaspoons sesame oil
1/2 cup frozen peas, thawed
2 eggs, lightly beaten
1 tablespoon fish sauce
1 tablespoon lime juice
1 tablespoon soy sauce
2 green onions, sliced
Bring the cooked rice to room temperature; set aside.
In a large deep skillet cook the bacon for 4-5 minutes.
Add the onions and celery, and sauté together for 4-5 minutes more, turning down the heat slightly if too much browning occurs.
Add the peas, and stir to combine. Then gently stir in the rice and sesame oil.
Let the rice mixture heat thoroughly over medium heat. Make a well in the middle, and add the eggs. Stir occasionally to make sure they’re cooking, then stir them into the rice. There should be little bits of cooked egg throughout the rice.
Parmesan Crusted Fish Fillets
10-12 oz white fish fillets
2 tablespoons heavy cream
1 egg, beaten
½ cup grated Parmesan cheese
Salt & black pepper to taste
2 tablespoons butter
Combine the egg, cream and Parmesan cheese in a shallow dish. Sprinkle the fish fillets lightly with salt and pepper.
Heat the butter in a skillet.
Coat the fish in the batter and add to the hot butter in the skillet. Cook until golden on the bottom side and turn over to cook the second side until golden. Serve with lemon quarters.
1/4 of a large savoy cabbage, sliced thin
2 scallions, finely minced
1 teaspoon honey or sugar substitute
1/4 teaspoon each salt and pepper
1/4 teaspoon celery seed
2 tablespoons mayonnaise
2 tablespoons sour cream
2 tablespoons heavy cream
1 1/2 teaspoons white vinegar
In a large bowl, combine the honey, salt, pepper, celery seed, mayonnaise, whipping cream, sour cream and vinegar using a whisk.
Add the shredded cabbage and scallions, stir gently to mix.
Refrigerate, covered, for several hours before serving.
Sweet Potato Waffle Fries
2 sweet potatoes (about 1 lb./500 g total)
2 tablespoons olive oil
Kosher salt and freshly ground pepper
Preheat an oven to 350°F (180°C).
Peel the sweet potatoes and cut them in half crosswise. Using a crinkle cutter or a mandoline fitted with the waffle cut blade, thinly slice the potatoes into waffle-cut rounds about 1/8 inch (3 mm) thick according to the manufacturer’s instructions, rotating the sweet potato 90 degrees between each cut.
Spread the sweet potatoes on a baking sheet and drizzle with the olive oil. Season lightly with salt and pepper. Toss the sweet potatoes to coat evenly, the spread in a single layer on the baking sheet.
Bake until the potatoes are crisp and golden-brown, about 10 minutes. Sprinkle with more salt, if desired, and serve hot.
I am reposting this page because the post I published Friday was marked as against “community standards” on FB. I don’t know how recipes can be marked as against community standards. So I am trying this again.
Grilled Chicken Tenders
1 lb chicken tenders
1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
2 tablespoons lemon juice
1 clove garlic, minced
1/2 teaspoon dried oregano
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/2 teaspoon black pepper
Combine the marinade ingredients in a plastic ziplock bag. Place the chicken tenders in the bag. Seal the bag and shake to coat the meat really well, Place the bag in the refrigerator to marinate for several hours.
Preheat a stovetop grill pan to medium-high heat. You may also use a broiler. Grill the tenders, turning them every 2-3 minutes until the meat is cooked through, about 10 minutes.
For 2 servings
1 medium zucchini, halved lengthwise
1 tablespoon olive oil
1 small garlic clove, minced
2 tablespoons finely chopped scallion
1/2 cup frozen spinach, defrosted, drained, and chopped
1/4 teaspoon dried oregano
1/2 cup ricotta cheese
1/4 cup shredded mozzarella
1/4 cup crumbled feta cheese
Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
Preheat oven to 350°F. Oil a baking dish large enough to fit the zucchini.
Using a serrated spoon, remove the fleshy centers of each zucchini half. Lightly salt the zucchini shells.
In a small skillet heat the oil and cook the chopped zucchini flesh, garlic, and scallion until soft. Add the drained spinach, salt, and pepper to taste and the oregano. Cook until the spinach is tender about 2 minutes. Remove the pan from the heat to cool.
Add the ricotta cheese, mozzarella, and feta cheese. Stir well. Scoop the spinach mixture into the zucchini shells and place in the baking dish.
Place in the oven to bake, 35 to 40 minutes, or until zucchini is tender. Let cool slightly and serve.
1/2 cup diced red onion
1 1/2 pounds ripe red tomatoes, cut into wedges
Shredded fresh basil leaves
1/2 teaspoon salt, divided
1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
1 tablespoon white wine vinegar
2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
For the dressing, in a small bowl whisk together the mustard, vinegar, pepper, and 1/4 teaspoon salt. Gradually whisk in the olive oil.
Place the onion, tomatoes and remaining ¼ teaspoon salt in a salad serving bowl. Toss with the salad dressing. Cover and chill at least 30 minutes or up to 24 hours, stirring occasionally.
1/4 cup oyster sauce
3 tablespoons fish sauce
1 teaspoon regular soy sauce
1/4 cup beef stock
1 tablespoon toasted sesame oil
1 teaspoon grated fresh ginger
1/4 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes
4 cloves garlic, minced
1 small flank steak or half of a large flank steak
1 medium onion, quartered
2 large stalks from one bunch fresh broccoli
2 tablespoons peanut oil
1 teaspoon cornstarch or arrowroot
3 scallions, sliced
Slice the steak into thin strips, about 1/4 inch thick.
In a large ziplock plastic bag, combine the oyster sauce, fish sauce, soy sauce, beef stock, sesame oil, ginger, red pepper flakes, and garlic.
Add the steak to the bag and mix until all pieces are coated. Let the steak marinate in the refrigerator for an hour or up to 24 hours.
Heat a wok or a large high-sided skillet over high heat. Add the oil to the pan.
Once the pan is very hot, remove the meat from the bag with tongs, letting the marinade drip back into the bag and add to the hot pan. Stir-fry for 2 minutes. Remove to a serving bowl. You made need to do this in two batches.
Add the broccoli and onion and stir fry 5 minutes or until tender. Add the cornstarch to the marinade in the bag. Shake and pour into the pan, Add the scallions and browned beef and stir fry for 2-3 minutes.
Pour the mixture back into the serving bowl. Serve with rice if you prefer.
Dipping Sauce: To Accompany Wraps
1/3 cup soy sauce
1/3 cup rice wine vinegar
1 tablespoon honey
2 teaspoons sesame oil
Pinch of red pepper flakes
Pinch granulated garlic
Mix together and let sit at room temperature for several hours to allow the flavors to combine.
Homemade Egg Rolls
2 tablespoons toasted sesame oil
1/2 pound ground pork
1 tablespoon fresh grated ginger
1 garlic clove, grated
1 cup finely shredded green cabbage
1/4 cup chopped red bell pepper
2 green onions, finely chopped
2 tablespoons soy sauce
1 tablespoon oyster sauce
1 teaspoon honey
6 large wonton wrappers or medium low carb tortillas
1 egg, beaten
Place a skillet over medium-high heat. Add the sesame oil, ground pork, grated ginger, and garlic.
Brown the ground pork and break it into small pieces with a wooden spoon. Once the pork is mostly cooked through, stir in the shredded cabbage, bell pepper, green onions, honey, oyster sauce, and soy sauce. Cook until the cabbage has softened, about 5 minutes. Remove from the heat and let cool for 10 minutes.
Lay each wonton or tortilla out on a kitchen towel and scoop 1/6 of the pork filling on one end of each wrap. Brush the edges with egg to seal. Fold the edge of the egg wrap over the filling and fold the sides inward, like a burrito. Roll the wrap, tucking in the edges to fully enclose the filling. Brown on all sides in hot vegetable oil and drain on paper towels. Serve with Chinese mustard or dipping sauce.
Cabbage Pot Stickers
8 outer cabbage leaves from a medium head
1/2 pound lean ground pork
2 green onions, chopped
2 teaspoons sesame oil
1 tablespoon soy sauce
1/4 teaspoon ground ginger
Bring a large pot of salted water to a boil. Cut the core off each of the cabbage leaves and add to boiling water. Boil for 5 minutes, until the cabbage is soft and tender. Use a slotted spoon to transfer cooked cabbage to a plate of paper towels to drain.
Prepare the pot sticker filling by combining the ground pork, chopped green onions, sesame oil, soy sauce, and ground ginger in a skillet and cook until the pork is brown. Place ⅛ of the filling on each cabbage leal and fold in the sides and then roll up the cabbage to enclose the filling.
Brush the skillet with vegetable oil and place the cabbage rolls in the pan. Cover the pan and cook the rolls over low heat for 5 minutes. Turn the rolls over, cover and cook for another 5 minutes. Serve with a dipping sauce.
1 tablespoon peanut oil or vegetable oil
1 pound chicken tenders
2 cloves garlic, minced
1 celery stalk, finely chopped
1/4 cup hoisin sauce
2 tablespoons soy sauce
1 tablespoon rice wine vinegar
1 tablespoon sesame oil
1 tablespoon freshly grated ginger
1 teaspoon Sriracha
2 green onions, thinly sliced
Large lettuce leaves
Heat the peanut oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add the chicken tenders and cook until browned on both sides, about 5-6 minutes. Remove to a plate to cool. Then cut the tender into small pieces.
Mix together the garlic, celery, green onions, hoisin sauce, soy sauce, sesame oil, rice wine vinegar, ginger and Sriracha in the skillet the chicken was cooked in. Cook 2 minutes and then add the chopped chicken. Cook until hot.
To serve, spoon several tablespoons of the chicken mixture into the center of a lettuce leaf and roll up.
Asian Broccoli Salad
Side dish for Asian wraps.
Half a head of broccoli cut into small florets
1 garlic clove, grated
1 teaspoon sesame oil
¼ cup Teriyaki sauce
Large pinch crushed red pepper flakes
In a large bowl, stir together the ingredients including the uncooked broccoli florets. Toss to combine.
Let sit for several hours at room temperature. Toss again before serving.
Meunière refers to both a sauce and a method of preparing fish. The word itself means “miller’s wife”. To cook something à la meunière is to first dredge the fish in flour and then saute in butter, chopped parsley, and lemon.
The first time Julia Child ate sole meunière was in 1948 at La Couronne in Rouen, France. Rumor has it this is the dish that transformed her into a French cook.
Unlike a lot of classic French cuisine, sole meunière requires almost no advance preparation and very little time at the stove. It is one of the quickest dinner preparations and you probably have flour, salt, pepper, butter, and lemon on hand. All you need is the fish. That fish does not have to be Dover sole, especially given that in recent years, its sustainability has become an issue (not to mention the fact that it is very expensive). Other flat, white, flaky fish will taste delicious when pan-fried and smothered in butter.
West Coast Dover Sole is a great alternative. Unlike the European Dover Sole, West Coast Dover Sole is a member of the flounder family. It is rated as a Best Choice by Seafood Watch and comes from Astoria, Oregon, a small fishing town located at the mouth of the Columbia River just a few miles from the Pacific Ocean.
I use West Coast Dover Sole in this recipe. Unlike the European Dover Sole, West Coast Dover Sole is a member of the flounder family. It is rated as a Best Choice by Seafood Watch and comes from Astoria, Oregon, a small fishing town located at the mouth of the Columbia River just a few miles from the Pacific Ocean. It is available for online purchase from Sea To Table.
4 small sole or flounder fillets, about 12 ounces total
1/2 teaspoon sea salt
1/2 teaspoon fresh ground pepper
1/3 cup flour (or cornstarch for gluten-free)
2 tablespoons olive oil
3 tablespoons butter
1 lemon, cut into slices
Gently rinse and pat dry the fillets with paper towels. Sprinkle both sides with salt and pepper. Dredge the fish in flour on both sides, shaking off excess flour. Place on a plate and set aside.
Heat the oil in a large skillet on medium/high heat until shimmering, about 2 minutes, then add the butter and stir together. When the butter stops foaming (about 40 seconds), add the fish and pan-fry until golden brown, about 3 minutes.
Carefully turn the fish over with a wide spatula and cook until done, another 2-3 minute, adding the lemon slices during the last 20 seconds of cooking. Remove the fish to a serving plate and pour the browned butter and lemon sauce over the fillets. Sprinkle with parsley and serve.
Italian Baked Tomatoes
1 large beefsteak tomato, halved horizontally
2 tablespoons shredded Parmesan cheese
2 teaspoons chopped fresh oregano
1/4 teaspoon salt
2 teaspoons extra-virgin olive oil
Freshly ground pepper, to taste
Preheat the oven to 450°F.
Place tomatoes cut-side up in a baking pan. Top with Parmesan, oregano, salt, and pepper. Drizzle with oil. Bake until the tomatoes are tender, about 15 minutes.
2 medium zucchini
1 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup flour (or gluten-free or low carb flour)
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 cup crumbled Greek feta
4 scallions, finely chopped
1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper
1/2 teaspoon dried dill
Olive oil, for cooking
Place shredded zucchini in a colander and sprinkle the salt over it, tossing well to evenly distribute the salt. Allow the zucchini to drain for at least 30 minutes, and longer if possible. After it has drained, place zucchini in a clean kitchen towel and squeeze out all excess water. Place the zucchini in a mixing bowl and add all the remaining ingredients, except the oil. Mix well.
Heat a stovetop griddle or a large skillet. Brush with olive oil. Dip a 1/4 cup measuring cup or scoop into the batter, level off. Drop the batter into the pan and gently push it into a flat pancake shape with the back of a metal spatula. Cook for 5 minutes adjusting the heat up or down as needed, then turn the fritters over and cook for another 5 minutes until crispy. Add more oil to the pan as needed to prevent sticking.
Drain the zucchini fritters on a paper towel before serving.