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Category Archives: Lazio

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According to the food historian, Clifford Wright, the origin of pasta carbonara is not really known. There are several competing theories, but all are anecdotal.

The first theory is said to come from a dish made in the Apennine mountains of Abruzzo by woodcutters who made charcoal for fuel. They would cook the dish over a hardwood charcoal fire and use penne rather than spaghetti because it was easier to toss with the eggs and cheese.

The second theory is the one that gives the meaning to the dish’s name – alla carbonara or coal worker’s style. This name implies that the dish was eaten by coal workers or that because of the abundant use of coarsely ground black pepper the dish resembled coal flakes.

Another story is that due to the food shortages after the liberation of Rome in 1944, the Allied troops distributed military rations consisting of powdered egg and bacon which the locals used with water to season the easily stored dried pasta.

There is also a theory that in the province of Ciociaria, in the region of Lazio near Rome, pasta was seasoned with eggs, lard and Pecorino cheese. During the World War II German occupation of Rome, many middle class families escaped the occupation and fled to Ciociaria, where they learned about this dish. After the war, Roman cuisine became very popular throughout Italy and this dish became a prime example.

Another story suggests that the famous restaurant in the Campo de Fiori in Rome, La Carbonara, was named after its speciality. Although the restaurant has been open since the early part of the twentieth century and does have carbonara on its menu, the restaurant denies any such connection.

The simplest story, and therefore the most likely, is that the dish had always existed at the family level and in local trattorias. Cheese, pork, olive oil, salt, pepper and pasta were all kept fresh without refrigeration and eggs were readily available at local farms. All that was needed was a pot and a fire. An eyewitness account supporting this theory can be found in a cookbook titled, Sophia Loren’s Recipes & Memories. The actress described how during the filming of Two Women in the late 1950s, in the mountains near Rome, the crew came upon a group of carbonai who offered to prepare food for them. They prepared carbonara. The director, Vittorio De Sica, and Loren had second helpings.  Loren returned the next day to learn how to make the dish. (An accomplished home cook, Loren claimed the recipe was exactly as the carbonai made it but her rendition calls for cream—an addition most carbonara connoisseurs would not agree with. The dish was also popular among the American troops stationed in Italy; and when they returned home, they made “spaghetti alla carbonara” popular in Italian cuisine.

And, the debate goes on….

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Pasta Carbonara

Serves 6

Ingredients

2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
1/2 cup minced guanciale, pancetta or bacon (about 1/4 pound)
Salt and freshly ground black pepper
1 pound spaghetti, linguine, fettuccine or other long, thin pasta
4 large eggs
1/2 cup grated Parmesan or Pecorino Romano, or more to taste

Directions

Bring a large pot of water to a rolling boil.

In a medium skillet, combine the olive oil and pork/bacon and turn heat to medium. Cook, stirring occasionally, until browned and crisp, about 10 minutes. Turn off heat.

Add salt to the boiling water and cook the pasta until al dente. Reserve about 1 cup of water before the draining pasta.

Beat eggs in a large warmed pasta serving bowl. Stir in 1/2 cup freshly grated Parmesan and the bacon and its juices. When the pasta is done, drain and toss with egg mixture.

Add a little of the pasta cooking water to moisten. Season with plenty of black pepper, and serve.

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Lazio located in central Italy, stretches from the western edges of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea. The region is mainly flat with small mountainous areas in the most eastern and southern districts. Lazio has four very ancient volcanic districts, where the craters of extinct volcanoes form the lakes of Bolsena, Vico, Bracciano, Albano and Nemi. Lazio is the third most populated region of Italy and has the second largest economy of the nation. Rome is the capital of Italy, as well as the region. Other important cities are Frosinone, Latina, Viterbo and Rieti.

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Until the late 19th century, much of the lowland area of Lazio was marshy and malarial. Major reclamation work in the early 20th century resulted in drainage and repopulation of the plain that transformed the region. Migratory grazing was greatly reduced and wheat, maize, vegetables, fruit and meat and dairy products were able to flourish in the lowlands, while olive groves and vineyards gradually began to cover the slopes.

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Light industry developed with the help of regional development programs, particularly in and around the new satellite towns of Aprilia, Pomezia and Latina, south of Rome. Rome is the region’s commercial and banking center, but it has little industry apart from artisan and specialized industries, such as fashions. Large numbers of persons are employed by the government. In the rest of the region only chemical and pharmaceutical plants, food industries, papermaking and a few small machine industries are of significance.

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Rome, including the Vatican, is Italy’s largest tourist center and tourism is also important at resorts in the Alban Hills, the Apennines and along the coast.

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Lazio’s transportation is also dominated by Rome’s railways and roads and the city has one of Europe’s busiest international airports. Civitavecchia, the only port of importance, is noted chiefly for its trade with Sardinia.

Take a tour of the Lazio region with the video below.

Lazio has developed food that is a great example of how the simple dishes of the poor working classes (farmers, miners, craftsmen) have formed the cuisine for all. Add to this a heavy influence of Jewish cooking and a variety of flavor combinations emerge.

Hebrew Bakery

Hebrew Bakery

Typical Roman food has its roots in the past and reflects the old traditions in most of its offerings. It is based on fresh vegetables (artichokes, deep-fried or simmered in olive oil with garlic and mint) and inexpensive cuts of meat (called “quinto quarto,” meaning mainly innards, cooked with herbs and hot chili pepper). It also consists of deep-fried appetizers (such as salted cod and zucchini blossoms) and sharp Pecorino cheese (made from sheep’s milk from the nearby countryside).

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The hills in Lazio are rich and fertile making it easy to grow vegetables of all types which in turn makes them an important part of the cuisine. They are cooked with liberal amounts of oil, herbs and garlic and, more often than not, a good portion of anchovies.

Lazio appetizers feature fresh seafood, preserved meats, ripe produce, artisanal breads, olives and olive oils produced within the region. Lazio cuisine may use fresh or dried pasta in many different shapes. Fresh pasta is usually found in lasagne or fettuccine. Lazio recipes for pasta often call for tubes, as this shape is more effective for holding onto hearty sauces. Potato, rice or semolina gnocchi dumplings are also commonly prepared. Suppli al telefono are hand held balls of rice stuffed with mozzarella cheese and sometimes flavored with liver or anchovies.

Chicken is used more here than in other regions and they also eat a fair amount of rabbit. Pork is used to make Guanciale or cured pork cheek, Ventresca or cured belly meat, Mortadella di Amatrice, sausages or salsicce, lard and prosciutto. Often the salumi are spicy and flavorful.

Much of the fish consumed in Lazio comes from the Tiber River and Bolsena Lake, including ciriole, caption and freshwater eels.

Even when it comes to desserts, they keep it simple. Maritozzi, a type of cream-filled pastry, doughnuts, fried rice treats and ricotta tarts are all popular.

Lazio is known for Est Est Est a wine that is produced in the area near Lake Bolsena and Falerno.

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Oven-Baked Gaeta

This deep dish pie is probably named for the town of Gaeta and the pan they used to prepare the pie. It was popular for the farmers and fishermen, so that they had a meal that could keep for a few days. It consists of a rustic pizza round that usually contains olives, fish (such as anchovies and / or sardines, octopus and squid), ricotta cheese or other cheeses and vegetables, such as tomatoes or onion.

Dough Ingredients

  • 10 ½ oz (300 gr) Italian flour (00 flour)
  • 7 oz (200 gr) all-purpose flour
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
  • 1 teaspoon yeast
  • 3/4 cup warm water

Ingredients for the filling

  • 1 1/4 lbs (500 gr) octopus
  • 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
  • 3/4 cup (60 gr) black olives
  • 3 cloves garlic, minced
  • 1 cup (200 gr) tomatoes, diced
  • 2 tablespoons (20 gr) parsley
  • 1 ½ teaspoons (3 gr) crushed red chilli pepper
  • Salt to taste

Directions

Combine the dough ingredients and let it rise, push the dough down and let it rise again.

Roll out half the dough to fit a 10 inch baking pan.

Put the octopus in a large pot of boiling salted water with the vinegar and boil until tender, about 45 minutes. Drain, rinse with cold water, and peel as much of the skin off the octopus as you can while it is still hot. Chop the octopus into bite-size pieces.

Combine the filling ingredients.

Place the filling in the dough covered pan.

Roll out the remaining dough and cover the filling. Seal and brush the dough with extra virgin olive oil.

Bake at 350 degrees F (180-200) for about 25-30 minutes.

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Romanesco Broccoli

Spaghetti and Roman Broccoli 

Serves 6

Ingredients

  • 1 head Romanesco broccoli or regular broccoli
  • 2 cloves garlic
  • 1 tablespoon of tomato paste
  • 2 ¼ cups (500 ml) of vegetable broth
  • 8 oz (220 gr) of spaghetti, broken into pieces
  • Salt and Pepper
  • 5 tablespoons grated Pecorino Romano
  • 1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil

Directions

For Romanesco broccoli:

Clean and dice in small pieces. Set aside in a bowl.

If using regular broccoli:

Wash the broccoli, clean the tops and cut off the florets. Dice the stalks. Set aside in a bowl.

Fry the garlic in the oil until golden in a large saucepan. Add the broccoli to the pan and stir well.

Add the vegetable broth and the tomato paste, stir and bring to a boil. Cook for about 20 minutes until the broccoli is tender.

Add salt and pepper according to taste.

Cook the spaghetti in boiling salted water. Drain and add to the broccoli in the saucepan and heat. Serve sprinkled with grated cheese.

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Bucatini Gricia

Carbonara, Cacio e Pepe, Amatriciana and Gricia are the four most popular pasta dishes in Rome. Together they form the backbone of Primi courses at every trattoria in the Eternal City, where the locals have strong, vocal opinions on where to find the best execution of each, never all at one place.

4 people

Ingredients

  • 12 oz (320 gr) bucatini pasta
  • 3 ½ oz (100 gr) Pecorino romano cheese, grated
  • 3 ½ oz (100 gr) guanciale or pancetta or bacon
  • Extra virgin olive oil
  • Salt and pepper

Directions

Dice the bacon and brown over low heat in a large skillet with 2 tablespoons of oil.

Cook the pasta in plenty of lightly salted boiling water, al dente. Drain well. Add to the skillet with the bacon and sauté for 1 minute.

Sprinkle with the cheese and freshly ground pepper. Drizzle with olive oil and serve immediately.

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Salt Cod Fillets Roman Style

4 people

Ingredients

  • 1 1/3 lbs (600 gr) salted codfish (baccalà), soaked
  • 3 ½ oz (100 gr) flour
  • 1 cup warm water
  • 1 (1/4-ounce) packet dry active yeast
  • 2 tablespoon butter, melted
  • Olive oil

Directions

Soak the baccalà in cold water for at least 3 days prior to preparing this dish. Change the water each day.

Combine butter, flour, water and yeast in a mixing bowl. Let the batter rest for 30 minutes.

Dry and cut the cod into serving pieces.

Coat each fillet in batter, then fry in a large pan with very hot oil.

Place fillets on paper towels to drain before serving.

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Hazelnut Cake Viterbo

Ingredients

  • Cake pan – 10 inches or 26 cm diameter
  • 1/2 cup (50 g) potato starch
  • 7 1/8 oz (200 gr) 00 Italian flour
  • 1 2/3 cups (350 gr) sugar
  • 1/3 cup (60 gr) milk chocolate, chopped
  • 1 ¼ cups (200 gr) chopped toasted hazelnuts
  • 1/2 cup 50 gr raisins softened in a little milk
  • 6 oz (170 gr) milk
  • 3 eggs
  • Zest of 1 lemon
  • 5 ¼ oz (150 g)  butter, softened
  • 2 teaspoons baking powder
  • Powdered sugar for garnish

Directions

In a  large bowl mix the potato starch, flour, baking powder, sugar, chocolate, chopped hazelnuts and softened butter.

Add one egg at a time and mix it into the mixture before adding the next. Add the drained raisins, lemon zest and milk.

Butter the pan and sprinkle with flour mixed with a little sugar.

Pour the cake mixture into the pan and bake in the oven at 325 degrees F (160-170) for 45-50 minutes.

Remove the cake from the oven and allow to cool. Sprinkle with powdered sugar before serving.



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