Cagliari is a province on the island of Sardinia in Italy. An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has been ruled several civilizations. Cagliari was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia from 1324 to 1848, when Turin became the formal capital of the kingdom (which in 1861 became the Kingdom of Italy). Today the area is a regional cultural, educational, political and artistic center, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments.
For a spectacular view, the best way to arrive in Cagliari is by sea. According to the author, DH Lawrence upon his arrival in the 1920s, he said the Sardinian capital reminded him of Jerusalem: ‘…strange and rather wonderful, not a bit like Italy.’ Yet, Cagliari is the most Italian of Sardinia’s cities. Tree-fringed roads and locals hanging out at cafes are typical. Sunset is prime-time viewing in the piazzas and everywhere you stroll, Cagliari’s rich history is spelled out in Roman ruins, museums, churches and galleries.
Following the unification of Italy, the area experienced a century of rapid growth. Numerous buildings combined influences from Art Nouveau together with the traditional Sardinian taste for floral decoration; an example is the white marble City Hall near the port. During the Second World War Cagliari was heavily bombed by the Allies. In order to escape from the danger of bombardments and difficult living conditions, many people were evacuated from the city into the countryside.
After the Italian armistice with the Allies in September 1943, the German Army took control of Cagliari and the island, but soon retreated peacefully in order to reinforce their positions in mainland Italy. The American Army then took control of Cagliari. Airports near the city (Elmas, Monserrato, Decimomannu, currently a NATO airbase) were used by Allied aircraft to fly to North Africa or mainland Italy and Sicily. After the war, the population of Cagliari grew again and many apartment blocks and recreational areas were erected in new residential districts, often with poor planning.
Cagliari is one of the “greenest” Italian cities and its mild climate allows the growth of numerous subtropical plants. The province has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and very mild winters. The city of Cagliari boasts a long coastline of eight miles and the Poetto, is the most popular beach.
Excellent wines can be found in the province, such as Cannonau, Nuragus, Nasco, Monica, Moscau, Girò and Malvasia, which are produced in the nearby vineyards of the Campidano plain.
Cagliari has some unique culinary traditions. Unlike the rest of the island, its cuisine is mostly based on the wide variety of locally available seafood. Although it is possible to trace culinary influences from Catalan, Sicily and Genoa, Cagliaritan food has a distinctive and unique character. Sardinians prefer barbecued fish (gilt-heads, striped bream, sea bass, red mullet, grey mullet and eels), while spiny lobsters, crayfish, small squid and clams are used in making pasta sauces and risottos.
Cagliari cuisine has numerous recipes for “pesce in carpaccio” or “pesce in burrida”. “Burrida” is fish and it is cooked in tomato sauce and vinegar or in a green sauce with walnuts. There are also numerous recipes for “gnocchetti” known as “malloreddus”, a type of passta which are different in size, color and taste because of the use of saffron and vegetables but they are all served “alla campidanese” with lots of tomato sauce, chopped sausage and grated Pecorino cheese.
Cagliari Style Lobster Salad
Lobster, which is called aragosta in Cagliari, is smaller, clawless and sweeter than New England lobster.
- 1/2 pound cooked lobster tail meat
- 10 cherry tomatoes, stemmed, washed and cut in half
- 1 tablespoon finely minced Italian parsley
- Grated zest of 1 large lemon
- 3 tablespoons Extra-Virgin Olive Oil
- 1 1/2 tablespoons freshly squeezed lemon juice
- 1/4 teaspoon fine sea salt, or more to taste
- 1/4 teaspoon ground white pepper
- Whole arugula leaves, washed and dried, optional
Cut the lobster meat up into bite-size pieces and place in a bowl. Gently mix in the tomatoes, parsley and lemon zest.
In a small bowl whisk together the olive oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper.
Pour the dressing over the lobster mixture and toss gently with two spoons.
Cover the bowl and refrigerate for at least 2 hours.
When ready to serve, allow enough time for the lobster mixture to come to room temperature.
Line serving plates with arugula leaves, if using. Divide the lobster mixture evenly and spoon into the center of each plate.
Cagliari Style Pasta with Sardines
- 1 large fennel bulb (1 1/4 lb) and fronds, trimmed and chopped
- 1/8 teaspoon crumbled saffron threads
- 1/2 cup raisins
- 1/2 cup dry white wine
- 1 medium onion, finely chopped
- 1 tablespoon fennel seeds, crushed
- 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil
- 2 (3 3/4- to 4 3/8-ounce) cans sardines in oil, drained
- 1 pound perciatelli or spaghetti pasta
- 1/2 cup pine nuts, toasted
- 1/3 cup dry bread crumbs, toasted and tossed with 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil and salt to taste
Finely chop the fennel bulb and fronds.
Combine the saffron, raisins and wine in a mixing bowl.
Cook the onion, fennel bulb and seeds in oil with salt to taste in a 12-inch heavy skillet over moderate heat, stirring, until the fennel is tender, about 15 minutes.
Add the wine mixture and half of the sardines, breaking sardines up with a fork; simmer 1 minute.
While the sauce is simmering, cook pasta in a 6 to 8 quart pot of boiling salted water until al dente, then drain in a colander.
Toss the hot pasta in a serving bowl with the fennel sauce, remaining sardines, fennel fronds, pine nuts and salt and pepper to taste. Add the bread crumbs and toss again.
Cagliari Style Clams with Fregola
Fregola is a pebble-shaped pasta that is formed by hand and then lightly toasted until golden. Fregola comes in small, medium and large grains and is available at specialty markets. This is a very popular dish in Sardinia.
- 1/3 cup extra-virgin olive oil
- 2 garlic cloves, minced
- 4 large plum tomatoes, chopped (about 2 cups)
- 1 1/2 cups water
- 1/2 cup fregola
- 2 dozen littleneck clams, scrubbed
- Salt and freshly ground pepper
- 2 tablespoons coarsely chopped
- Slices of Italian bread, toasted
Heat the olive oil in a large skillet. Add the garlic and cook over moderately high heat until fragrant, about 30 seconds.
Add the chopped tomatoes and cook until softened, about 3 minutes. Add the water and bring to a boil.
Stir in the fregola, cover and cook over moderately low heat, stirring occasionally, until tender, about 17 minutes.
Add the clams to the skillet in a single layer. Cover the pan and cook over moderately high heat until the clams open, about 4 minutes.
Discard any clams that do not open. Season the fregola with salt and pepper.
Spoon the fregola, clams and broth into shallow serving bowls.
Sprinkle with the coarsely chopped parsley and serve with toasted Italian bread.
- 1 lb dough
- Chopped fresh tomato
- Sliced mozzarella cheese
- Grated Pecorino cheese
- Sliced Sardinian sausage
- Thinly sliced onion and artichoke hearts, optional
- Italian green and black olives and a few capers
- Oregano and fresh basil
Spread the dough in a pan.
Add a generous layer of mozzarella cheese.
Add slices of sausage, olives, capers, onion and artichokes, if using.
Sprinkle with Pecorino cheese and top with chopped tomato.
Bake in the oven at 300 degrees F until the edges are golden.
Remove the pizza from the oven and add a few leaves of fresh basil and oregano. Cut into serving pieces.
The Province of Rovigo is located in the Veneto region in the northwestern section of Italy. Rovigo lies in the southern part of the region in the Po Valley and is crossed by two major rivers: the Po and the Adige. It is a land where a dense network of canals, drainage units, reclaimed lands and plantations coexist with nature. A quiet world, where silence is only interrupted by the sound of birds and the flow of the Po River.
The Medieval influence can be seen in the towers that look over the cities in the province, such as the tower in via Pighin and the two leaning towers: Donà – one of the highest Italian towers – and the Mozza tower. The Cathedral dedicated to St. Stephen preserves many sculptures and paintings. The National Archaeological Museum contains Etruscan and Roman artifacts.
True to Italian tradition, many feasts and festivals are held throughout the Province of Rovigo, celebrating age-old customs that still flourish today. Strawberries, wheat and polenta are just some of the foodstuffs that are featured in these festivals in addition to the traditional Christmas and Easter celebrations. The Sagra degli Aquiloni (Kite Festival) is an event dedicated to children with prizes for the most beautiful and the highest-flying kite. The carnival celebration in Fratta Polesine might be one of the most beautiful events. The parade of carnival floats, games and events among the monuments of the old town on the last Sunday of carnival is very popular, as is the carnival cuisine.
Many crops grow well in the fertile Po Basin. Beans, radicchio, asparagus, pumpkins, squash, corn, celery, artichokes and cherries. All lend themselves perfectly to the region’s cooking. Excellent honey is produced here. Wine culture is strong in the region, with many types of whites and reds being produced here. Wine and grappa making are favorite hobbies because of the excellent quality of the region’s grapes. There are a great variety of excellent local wines, such as Refosco ai Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon, Lambrusco and Raboso. White wines include Malvasia, Sauvignon, Riesling and Trebbiano.
Rice production has been honed to a fine art in the region, with countless creamy risotto recipes giving testament to the fact that rice is important. Cattle farming and the dairy industry are highly prized in this area (butter is often used instead of olive oil in cooking) and cheeses find their way into many dishes.
The typical cuisine of the region is based on local products that, of course, would include rice. Along the coastline, fish and shellfish are favorite additions and typical foods include platters of steamed shellfish, pasta with cannucce (mantis shrimp) and gnocchi with baby mullet and fried local fish. Risotto (cooked with eel, mullet and bass), rice in a fish broth, guinea fowl “in tecia” (cooked in an earthenware pot) or the fòlaga (bald coot stewed with beans) are all popular dishes.
A well-known appetizer is “sarde in saor” (sardines in sweet and sour sauce). Another great food tradition in the region is cicchetti, small snacks or side dishes that are usually eaten with a small glass of wine at the popular wine bars. These snacks are often tiny sandwiches, plates of olives or other vegetables, halved hard-boiled eggs, small servings of a combination of one or more of seafood, meat and vegetable ingredients laid on top of a slice of bread or polenta and very small servings of typical full-course plates. Like Spanish tapas, one can also make a meal of cicchetti by ordering multiple plates.
Once you go inland, away from the sea, the food of the hill and mountain towns becomes more hearty, with polenta, gnocchi, horsemeat and wildfowl, particularly duck, are the featured ingredients for main dishes. Bigoli are a rough, thick homemade spaghetti, usually made from wheat flour, that are laboriously extruded through a special tool used only for that purpose. Radicchio is popular with varieties all named after cities they are grown in or near: Treviso, Verona, etc.
Sweet and Sour Sardines (Sarde in Saor)
- 12 fresh sardines, cleaned
- 60 ml (1/4 cup) extra virgin olive oil
- 1 onion, thinly sliced
- 125 ml (1/2 cup) dry white wine
- 125 ml (1/2 cup) white wine vinegar
- 1 pinch of ground cinnamon
- 50 g (1/3 cup) raisins
- 2 thyme sprigs
- Toasted pine nuts and lemon wedges, to serve
Brush sardines with 1 tablespoon of olive oil and season with salt and pepper. Heat a large grill pan or frying pan over medium heat and cook the sardines, turning once, for 8 minutes or until just cooked. Set aside.
Heat 2 tablespoons of oil in a clean frying pan over medium heat. Add onion and cook, stirring, for 10 minutes or until softened. Add wine and vinegar and simmer for 2 minutes or until slightly reduced, then add cinnamon, raisins and thyme. Simmer for a further 2 minutes, then remove from the heat. Pour onion mixture over the sardines, then cool completely. Drizzle with remaining oil and scatter the pine nuts on top. Serve with lemon.
Crostini with Radicchio
- 7-8 oz (200 g) radicchio leaves
- 1 onion, finely chopped
- 3 tablespoons olive oil
- 1 2/3 fluid oz (50 ml) red wine
- Parsley, finely chopped
- 1 ½ oz Grated Parmesan cheese, grated
- 20 baguette slices
Cut the radicchio into thin strips. Sauté the onion and the radicchio in hot oil and deglaze the pan with the red wine.
Add salt and pepper and stir, making sure that the liquid doesn’t boil away completely. Mix the parsley into the dish and spread the mixture on the baguette slices.
Bake the baguettes in a preheated oven at 425 degrees F (220°C) for about 6 minutes, sprinkle them with cheese and serve.
Supa da ajo (Garlic soup)
Ingredients for 4 people:
- 4 thin slices of stale bread, cut into small cubes
- 6 cloves of garlic
- 2 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil
- 2 cups of hot chicken stock
- 2 eggs
- Chopped parsley, for garnish
Crush the garlic cloves.
Pour the oil into a large saucepan.
Add the garlic and cook for 5 minutes on very low heat.
Remove the garlic.
Add the bread cubes. Stir.
Pour in the hot chicken stock.
Season with salt.
Let it simmer for 30 minutes.
Crack the eggs into a bowl and whisk them.
Pour them slowly into the hot soup.
Cook for 3 minutes stirring continuously.
Serve garnished with parsley.
Italian Pumpkin Gnocchi
For the gnocchi:
- 1 ½ lbs (700 g) pumpkin
- 8 tablespoons breadcrumbs
- 1 egg
- 3 ½ oz (100 g) flour, plus extra for the forming the gnocchi
- 1 ¾ oz (50 g) grated Grana Padano cheese
- Salt & pepper
For the sauce:
- 3 oz (80 g) butter
- Sage leaves
- 1 ¾ oz (50 g) grated Grana Padano cheese
To cook the pumpkin.
There are two ways:
- Cut the pumpkin into pieces, leaving the skin on, and put it in the oven (350ºF/180°C) for 30 minutes. Then peel it and mash the pulp.
- Peel the skin, cut the pumpkin into pieces and put it in the microwave with a couple of tablespoons of water and microwave on high for 15 minutes.Cool to room temperature.
Mix the pumpkin with breadcrumbs, egg and salt. Add the flour gradually until a soft dough forms.
Flour the counter or a pastry board and form the dough into 1 inch thick long ropes. Cut each rope into 1 inch pieces and gently press each with the prongs of a fork on two sides.
Put the prepared gnocchi on a floured cutting board or baking sheet. When all the gnocchi are formed, you can cook them.
Cut the butter and sage into small pieces and place them on a baking sheet. Heat the oven to 350 degrees F., then turn it off. Place the baking sheet with the butter in the oven.
Boil a large pot of salted water and add the gnocchi, a dozen at a time. As soon as they rise to the surface, scoop them out with a skimmer and place them on the baking sheet in the oven.
As the gnocchi are cooked add them to the baking sheet.
When all the gnocchi are cooked, place them in a serving bowl with a generous amount of grated Grana Padano cheese.
It’s a great time of year to enjoy some fresh seafood. Whether you buy it fresh from the counter at your favorite market, catch your own or buy it frozen, seafood is a great addition to your summer menu. Make salad your main course by adding some grilled fish to it. Include lots of leafy greens (choose from spinach, arugula, romaine or mixed baby greens) and add tomatoes, bell peppers, cucumber and diced onion. Top your salad with a tasty homemade dressing.
Italian Marinated Seafood Salad
- 3/4 pound sea scallops
- 1/2 pound medium unpeeled shrimp
- 1/2 pound fresh mussels
- 1/4 pound calamari rings
- 1/2 cup pitted kalamata olives
- 2 tablespoons lemon juice
- 1/3 cup olive oil
- 1 large clove garlic, minced
- 1 tablespoon minced fresh parsley
- 1 tablespoon minced fresh chives
- 1/4 teaspoon red pepper flakes
- 1 lemon, sliced
- 1 medium red onion, thinly sliced
- 6 cups mixed salad greens
- Freshly ground pepper and salt to taste
Bring a large pot of water to boiling. Add scallops, shrimp, mussels and calamari to the boiling water and cook for 2 minutes. Drain.
Peel the shrimp and remove the mussels from their shells.
Place cooked seafood and olives in a large bowl and toss with the lemon juice, olive oil, garlic, parsley, chives and red pepper flakes. Chill for 1 hour.
Divide salad greens onto 6 plates or salad bowls. Spoon seafood over greens. Garnish with slices of lemon and red onions. Season to taste with salt and freshly ground black pepper.
Lentil Salad with Grilled Salmon
You can use canned salmon but for really good flavor, grill extra salmon one night so that you have leftovers for this salad.
- 1/3 cup lemon juice
- 1/3 cup chopped fresh dill
- 2 teaspoons Dijon mustard
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- 1/4 teaspoon Freshly ground pepper
- 1/3 cup extra-virgin olive oil
- 1 medium red bell pepper, seeded and diced
- 1 cup cucumber,seeds removed and diced
- 1/2 cup finely chopped red onion
- Two 15-ounce cans lentils, rinsed, or 3 cups cooked brown or green lentils (see cooking note below)
- 12 oz leftover grilled salmon fillet or 1 ½ cups flaked canned salmon
Whisk lemon juice, dill, mustard, salt and pepper in a large serving bowl. Gradually whisk in the oil. Add bell pepper, cucumber, onion, lentils toss to coat. Let marinate for at least one hour or chill until ready to serve. Place leftover chilled salmon on top of the salad or flake and mix in with the lentils just before serving.
To cook the lentils: Place in a saucepan, cover with water and bring to a boil. Reduce heat to a simmer and cook until just tender, about 20 minutes for green lentils and 30 minutes for brown. Drain and rinse under cold water.
Mediterranean Salad with Sardines
- 3 tablespoons lemon juice
- 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
- 1 clove garlic, minced
- 2 teaspoons dried oregano
- 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground pepper
- 3 medium ripe tomatoes, cut into large chunks
- 1 large cucumber, cut into large chunks
- One 15-ounce can chickpeas, rinsed
- 1/3 cup crumbled feta cheese
- 1/4 cup thinly sliced red onion
- 2 tablespoons sliced Kalamata olives
- Two 4-ounce cans sardines with bones, packed in olive oil and drained (see cooking note below)
Whisk lemon juice, oil, garlic, oregano and pepper in a large serving bowl until well combined. Add tomatoes, cucumber, chickpeas, feta, onion and olives; gently toss to combine. Let marinate for at least an hour.
At serving time, divide the salad among 4 plates and top with sardines.
Look for sardines with skin and bones (which are edible) as they have more than four times the amount of calcium as skinless, boneless sardines. If you’re lucky enough to have fresh sardines available in your market, try them in place of the canned sardines. Lightly dredge them in salt-and-pepper-seasoned flour and sauté them in a little olive oil.
Grilled Fish Fillet Salad
- 1 medium clove garlic
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- 5 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
- ½ cup fresh orange juice
- 1/4 cup white-wine vinegar
- 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
- 1 1/2 pounds red potatoes (5-6 medium), scrubbed and halved
- 1 1/4 pounds green beans, trimmed
- Juice of 1 large lemon
- 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- 1 pound halibut or striped bass or your favorite fish fillet (see cooking note below)
- 1/4 teaspoon coarsely ground pepper
- 1 large head tender lettuce
- 1 1/2 cups grape tomatoes
- 3 hard-boiled eggs peeled and cut into wedges
- 1/4 cup sliced pitted Kalamata olives
- 1/4 cup finely chopped fresh parsley
To prepare the vinaigrette:
Using a fork, mash the garlic with 1/4 teaspoon salt in a small bowl to form a coarse paste. Whisk in 5 tablespoons oil. Add 6 tablespoons orange juice, vinegar and mustard; whisk until well blended. Taste and season with more salt, if desired. Set aside at room temperature.
To prepare the salad:
Cook potatoes in boiling salted water until tender, 10 to 15 minutes. Remove with a slotted spoon to a colander. When cool enough to handle, slice and place in a shallow bowl. Drizzle with 1/3 cup vinaigrette; set aside.
Add beans to the saucepan and bring to a boil; cook until the beans are bright green and just tender, 4 to 6 minutes. Drain well. Place in a medium bowl and toss with 2 tablespoons vinaigrette.
Combine lemon juice, 2 tablespoons oil, salt and pepper in a sturdy ziplock plastic bag; shake until the salt dissolves. Add fish and marinate for up to 20 minutes.
Heat a grill to medium-high and preheat for 10 minutes, then reduce heat to medium. (For a charcoal grill, wait until the flames subside and only coals and some ash remain—flames will cause the oil on the fish to burn.) Oil grill rack.
Grill the fish, turning once, until browned and just cooked through, 4 to 5 minutes per side for halibut; 3 to 4 minutes per side for bass.
Arrange lettuce leaves on a large serving platter. Arrange the fish (whole or flaked into large chunks), potatoes, green beans and tomatoes on top. Drizzle with the remaining vinaigrette. Garnish with eggs, olives, parsley and pepper to taste.
Fish that flakes easily requires a delicate touch to flip on the grill. If you want to skip turning it over when grilling, measure a piece of foil large enough to hold the fish and coat it with cooking spray. Grill the fish on the foil (without turning) until it flakes easily and reaches an internal temperature of 145°F.
Shrimp & Arugula Salad
Grill extra corn to use in this salad.
- 12 cups loosely packed arugula leaves
- 2 cups loosely packed fresh basil leaves, torn if large
- 1 1/2 cups leftover grilled fresh corn kernels, (from about 2 ears)
- 1 1/2 cups cherry or grape tomatoes, halved
- 4 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
- 1 1/2 tablespoons lemon juice
- 1 1/2 tablespoons balsamic vinegar
- 2 teaspoons grainy mustard
- 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt, divided
- 1 pound raw shrimp, (21-25 per pound), peeled and deveined, tails removed if desired
- Homemade croutons made ahead and cooled, (see recipe below)
- Freshly ground pepper, to taste
- 1/2 cup Asiago or Parmesan cheese, shaved
Sprinkle shrimp with 1/4 teaspoon salt. Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium-high heat. Add the shrimp and cook, turning from time to time, just until they turn pink and are opaque in the center, about 3 minutes. chill in the refrigerator.
Combine arugula, basil, corn and tomatoes in a large salad bowl.
Whisk 3 tablespoons oil, lemon juice, vinegar, mustard and 1/4 teaspoon salt in a small bowl.
Add to the arugula mixture along with the croutons.
Whisk the dressing again and drizzle over the salad; toss to coat. Divide the salad among 4 plates. Grind black pepper over the salads and sprinkle with cheese.
- 3 pieces of good quality Italian bread, cut into 1-inch cubes (about 3 cups)
- 1 teaspoon dried Italian seasoning
- 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.
On a large baking sheet, spread out the bread cubes in one layer.
Evenly sprinkle the Italian seasoning, garlic powder and salt over the bread cubes.
Then drizzle the olive oil over the top.
Using your hands, toss to combine thoroughly and then spread back into one even layer.
Bake for 14 to 16 minutes or until golden brown. The croutons will harden as they cool.
For an easy and economical alternative to fresh fish, consider canned fish. There are advantages in using canned fish: safety, hygiene, nutrition and flavor. Moreover, in the kitchen, canned fish is ideal for making salads, pasta and rice dishes and appetizers
Skipjack and albacore are good varieties to buy. Wild Planet brand is sustainably pole-and-line-caught. Mix it into a salad with fresh chard and white beans; use it for fish tacos; stuff it in tomatoes.
Look for sockeye or the milder pink variety. The small pin bones are often cooked with the fish, adding extra calcium. Make salmon burgers or fish cakes; put it in a creamy chowder; try it smoked—Patagonia sells pouches that are perfect for hiking and camping.
These tiny fish have a bold taste and are dense with omega-3 oils. Bela brand offers them smoked in different flavors. Add to an antipasto platter; top crostini; delicious grilled.
Small and salty, they’re not just for Caesar dressing—toss on Puttanesca pasta sauce; stir into fish stew; wrap around olives.
While there are many subcategories and fine distinctions in the area of canned crabmeat, there are a few main categories. Knowing these will help you save money when deciding what type of crab meat to purchase for the meal you’re planning.
Lump crabmeat is best for fancy, impressive-looking dishes where appearance matters, like Butter-poached Crab, Crab Cakes or Crab Louis, where you want big chunks that will hold together with minimal binders.
Backfin grade is made up of smaller, broken chunks of lump crabmeat mixed in with flakes of white body meat. It’s less expensive than lump crab meat. Good for salads and pasta dishes.
Claw Crabmeat is the least expensive and most flavorful grade. It is pinkish-brown rather than white and has a hearty crab flavor that doesn’t get lost under seasonings. Great for soups, crab meat stuffing, tacos, stir-frys, etc.
While overfishing has been an issue for some species that find their way to the market, that’s not the case with clams. Harvesting of both the Atlantic surf clam, also called the sea clam, and the ocean quahog have been well within the quotas, according to statistics from the National Marine Fisheries Service. Minced and chopped clams are good in chowders and pasta dishes.
Crabmeat Artichoke Appetizer
- 1 can(6 oz) Lump Crabmeat, drained
- 1 can (13.75 oz.) artichoke hearts, drained and chopped
- 1/3 cup light mayonnaise
- 1/3 cup nonfat plain yogurt
- ½ teaspoon lemon pepper seasoning
- ½ cup shredded Italian Fontina cheese
Place the drained crabmeat in a glass bowl and cover with cold milk. Set aside for 10 minutes. Drain well. (This technique gives canned fish a fresh taste.)
Preheat the oven to 350°F.
In a 1 1/2 quart baking dish, combine crab, artichoke, mayonnaise, yogurt and seasoning. Sprinkle with cheese.
Bake 25 to 30 minutes or until hot. Serve with crackers or sliced baguette.
Artichokes with Bagna Cauda
Makes 6 servings
- 3 heads of garlic, cloves separated, papery skin removed (but cloves left unpeeled)
- 3 tablespoons butter
- 1 2-ounce tin anchovy fillets, drained and chopped
- 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil
- 6 large artichokes, stems trimmed, top 3/4 inch removed, tips of remaining leaves trimmed
Place unpeeled garlic cloves in small saucepan. Add enough water to cover garlic cloves by 1 inch. Bring to boil; reduce heat to medium-low, cover, and simmer until garlic is tender, about 25 minutes. Drain; transfer to plate. Chill garlic cloves until cool enough to handle, about 10 minutes. Squeeze garlic cloves from their peels and place cloves in a small bowl. Using fork, mash garlic cloves until smooth.
Melt butter in heavy small saucepan over medium heat. Add anchovies and sauté 1 minute. Add mashed garlic and olive oil. Simmer over low heat 10 minutes to allow flavors to blend, stirring occasionally. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
DO AHEAD: Can be made 1 hour ahead. Let stand at room temperature. Rewarm before serving, stirring occasionally (bagna cauda will separate when served).
Add artichokes to large pot of boiling salted water. Cover and cook until just tender when pierced through stem with fork, turning occasionally, 30 to 40 minutes, depending on their size. Drain.
Place 1 hot artichoke on each of 6 plates. Divide bagna cauda among small bowls or ramekins. Serve artichokes with warm bagna cauda. Pull a leaf off the artichoke and dip it into the sauce.
To separate garlic cloves quickly, place the head of garlic on a work surface, then push against the top or bottom of the head of garlic with the palm of your hand.
Use kitchen scissors to cut off the tips of pointed artichoke leaves.
Spinach Salad with Sardines and Crispy Prosciutto
- 1 lemon, zested, plus 3 tablespoons juice
- 1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil, divided
- Coarse salt and freshly ground black pepper
- 1/4 cup golden raisins
- 2 ounces thinly sliced prosciutto, torn into 3-inch pieces
- 8 cups baby spinach (6 oz)
- 1 can (4.25 ounces) sardines, packed in olive oil, drained
- 2 tablespoons freshly minced chives
Whisk the lemon juice and 3 tablespoons of the oil in a small bowl. Season with salt and pepper and stir in raisins.
Heat oven to 400 degrees F. On a rimmed baking sheet, arrange prosciutto in a single layer and brush with remaining tablespoon of oil. Bake, rotating halfway through, until crisp and deep golden brown, about 9 minutes.
Arrange spinach on a platter and top with sardines, prosciutto, lemon zest and chives. Drizzle with dressing and adjust seasoning as necessary.
- 3 cans or pouches (5 oz) tuna, drained and flaked
- 2 cans (14-1/2 oz. each) chicken broth plus water to equal 4 cups
- 1 can (14-1/2 oz.) ready-cut Italian-style tomatoes, undrained
- 1 can (15-1/4 oz.) kidney beans, drained and rinsed
- 1/4 cup tomato paste
- 1 teaspoon Italian dried herb seasoning
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1/4 teaspoon ground pepper
- 1/2 cup dry small shell pasta
- 2 cups frozen mixed vegetables (zucchini, carrots, cauliflower, Italian green beans, etc.)
- 3 cups fresh romaine lettuce cut crosswise in 1-inch strips
- ½ cup freshly shredded Parmesan cheese
In a 4-quart saucepan, combine chicken broth mixture, tomatoes with liquid, kidney beans, tomato paste, herb seasoning, salt and pepper. Bring to a boil over high heat. Add pasta and frozen vegetables; simmer 8 minutes. Remove from heat; stir in tuna and romaine. Sprinkle with cheese and serve.
Salmon and Potato Gratin
- 2 pounds Yukon Gold potatoes, cleaned and unpeeled
- 1 cup parmesan cheese
- 1 pound canned salmon, boneless, drained
- 1/4 teaspoon fresh thyme, chopped
- Salt and freshly ground pepper
- 1 tablespoon cornstarch
- 1 cup whole milk
- 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard
- 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper
- 1 tablespoon unsalted butter, plus extra for greasing the baking dish
- 2 tablespoons fresh Italian parsley leaves, finely chopped
Preheat oven to 375° F.
Grease a 12 inch oval baking dish or a 9 x 13 inch rectangular baking dish with butter.
Cut the potatoes crosswise in 1/4 inch slices.
Layer 1/2 of the potatoes on the bottom of the dish in concentric circles. Sprinkle with 1/2 the cheese. Sprinkle with salmon and thyme. Layer remaining potatoes on top. Season potatoes with salt and pepper to taste. Sprinkle remaining cheese.
In a medium bowl combine cornstarch, milk, Dijon mustard and cayenne pepper. Pour the mixture evenly over the potatoes.
Cut butter into pieces and dot over the top.
Bake until potatoes are tender and the top is golden, about 1 hour. Sprinkle with fresh parsley and serve.
Linguine with Clam Sauce
- 1 pound linguine
- 2 cans (6.5 oz) minced clams with liquid drained – reserve the liquid. I like the Bar Harbor brand.
- 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
- 3 cloves garlic, thinly sliced
- 1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes
- 1/2 cup chopped Italian parsley, divided
- Freshly ground black pepper and Kosher salt to taste
- 1/3 cup dry white wine
Cook linguine in boiling salted water until al dente. Drain.
In a large deep skillet add the oil, garlic, crushed red pepper and the drained clams. Cook on low about 2 minutes. Add the wine and bring to a boil.
Turn the heat down to very low and stir in the reserved clam liquid and the parsley.
Remove from heat and add the cooked pasta. Mix well and serve.
Lampedusa is the largest island of the Italian Pelagie Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The community of Lampedusa e Linosa is part of the Sicilian province of Agrigento which also includes the smaller islands of Linosa and Lampione. It is in the southernmost part of Italy and is Italy’s southernmost island. Tunisia, which is about 113 kilometres (70 miles) away, is the closest land to the islands. Sicily is farther at 176 kilometres (109 miles); Malta is a similar distance to the east.
Politically and administratively, Lampedusa is part of Italy, but geologically belongs to Africa, since the sea between the two is no more than 400 feet. It has no sources of water other than irregular rainfall. The fauna and flora of Lampedusa are similar to those of North Africa. The south-western side is dominated by deep gorges, while the southeastern part is mostly shallow valleys and sandy beaches. The entire northern coast contains cliffs: gently sloping on the east coast and steep cliffs on the west coast. Lampedusa’s sea bed features a wealth of fish, coral, sea sponges and oysters in a myriad of shapes and colors.
Lampedusa, which has an area of 20.2 square kilometres (7.8 sq mi), has a population of approximately 4,500 people. Its main industries are fishing and tourism. A ferry service links the island with Porto Empedocle, near Agrigento, Sicily. Lampedusa has a semi-arid climate. It has very mild winters with moderate rainfall and hot, dry summers. The sea surrounding the island is relatively shallow. Water temperatures stay warm most of the year, with the warmest being in August when the sea typically reaches 27 to 28 °C (81 to 82 °F). The water stays warm until November, when temperatures range from 20 to 23 °C (68 to 73 °F). It is coolest in February and March, when it averages around 16 °C (61 °F).
Over the last century much of Lampedusa has suffered from deforestation where, previously, it was home to numerous plants and trees. Several measures have been taken to improve the situation and although there is still very little agriculture, some parts of the island are full of beautiful and exotic plants and flowers such as palms, figs, olives, prickly pear cactuses and yuccas.
The main attractions on the island are all centrally located and concentrated in one area which makes it easier to visit them on foot or by renting a scooter or a moped. Mopeds and scooters are available in several places on the island, however, visitors must be careful with their use of fuel, since there are only a few gas stations on the island. There are several hotels and restaurants located here and a number of stores that sell locally made pottery, wooden items, souvenirs and Italian wines.
The most magnificent beach on the island is the Spiaggia dei Conigli (Rabbit Beach) and a vast area around this beach has been declared a nature reserve encompassing both the land and sea areas. There are hardly any structures in the area and fishermen are not allowed to fish nearby, which means snorkelling is excellent. This is a protected area because the beach is one of the last remaining places where sea turtles regularly come to lay their eggs. There is a rescue center and hospital located here where the islanders care for the sea turtles, should they get accidentally injured. In 2013 Rabbit Beach, located in the southern part of the island, was voted the world’s best beach by the travel site TripAdvisor. The island got its name since it was once filled with rabbits, however, now only a few rabbits can be spotted here.
Since the early 2000s, the island has become a primary European entry point for migrants, mainly coming from Africa. In 2011, many immigrants moved to Lampedusa during the rebellions in Tunisia and Libya. By May 2011, more than 35,000 immigrants had arrived on the island from Tunisia and Libya and by the end of August, 48,000 more had arrived. Most were young males in their 20s and 30s. The situation has caused division within the EU, the French government regarding most of the arrivals as economic migrants rather than refugees in fear of persecution. Italy has repeatedly requested aid from the EU in managing refugees, but has been turned down.
Historically, Lampedusa was a landing-place and a maritime base for the ancient Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs. In 1553 Barbary pirates from North Africa raided Lampedusa and carried off 1,000 captives into slavery. As a result of pirate attacks, the island became uninhabited. The first prince of Lampedusa and Linosa was Ferdinand Tommasi, ancestor of the writer Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa, who received the title from Charles II of Spain in 1667. A century later, the Tomassi family began a program of resettlement.
In the late 18th century, the Prince of Lampedusa leased the island to Salvatore Gatt, a Maltese entrepreneur, who settled on the island with a few Maltese workers. After Malta fell under British protection in 1800, they considered taking over Lampedusa as a naval base instead of Malta, but the idea was dropped as the island did not have deep harbors and was not well-developed. In the 1840s, the Tomassi family sold the island to the Kingdom of Naples. In 1860, the island became part of the new Kingdom of Italy, but the Italian government limited its activities there to building a penal colony. In June 1943, during the Second World War, as a precursor to the Allied invasion of Sicily, the island was secured without resistance in Operation Corkscrew by the Royal Navy destroyer HMS Lookout.
The first telephone connection with Sicily was installed only in the 1960s. In the same decade an electric power station was built. In 1972, part of the western side of the island became a United States Coast Guard LORAN-C transmitter station. In 1979, Lt. Kay Hartzell took command of the Coast Guard base, becoming “the first female commanding officer of an isolated duty station”.
In the late 1980s, an increase in tensions developed and the area around the island was the scene of multiple attacks. On April 15, 1986, Libya fired two Scud missiles at the Lampedusa navigation station on the island in retaliation for the American bombing of Tripoli and Benghazi and the alleged death of Colonel Gaddafi’s adopted daughter. However, the missiles passed over the island, landed in the sea without causing damage. On 4 January 1989, U.S. Navy aircraft from the carrier USS John F. Kennedy shot down two Libyan fighters approximately 200 kilometres (124 miles) from the island. The base commander was advised by the U.S. Sixth Fleet Intelligence at La Maddalena that the Libyan president, Muammar al-Gaddafi, had threatened reprisals against the American commanders at Sigonella and Lampedusa. An Italian media frenzy followed that event which put Lampedusa in the spotlight. The NATO base was decommissioned in 1994 and transferred to Italian military control.
The Cuisine of Lampedusa
Until recently, the cuisine was distinguished in three ways. The first one was called the cuisine of the Monsù and it was prepared for the rich and noble people. A second type was the popular cuisine, basically dishes that the poor people, who were in the majority, cooked daily. They were trying to imitate the Monsù Cuisine by simply changing the main ingredient. If the Nobles had meat they had eggplant/aubergine instead. The third type was and is street food. Even today, you can find stands along the streets that sell chickpea fritters, potato croquettes or grilled lamb offal.
Fish and seafood are the specialities, however, and, even if you are not a big fish fan, you cannot fail to be impressed by the exquisite way the Lampedusans cook their fresh catch-of-the-day, often in a sauce of tomatoes, capers, potatoes and olives.
Here are recipes for some of their specialties:
Caciocavallo all’Argentiera or Fried Cheese
- 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
- 2 cloves of garlic
- 3 slices of Caciocavallo cheese
- Pinch of black pepper
- 3 tablespoons of vinegar
In a frying pan heat the olive oil over medium heat, add the garlic and after a minute add the slices of cheese. Let them cooked covered for a couple of minute,turn and cook until the slices become golden.
Add the vinegar, the pepper and sprinkle with oregano. Place on a serving dish with fennel and radicchio.
Rigatoni Con Pesce Spada e Melanzane (Rigatoni with Swordfish and Eggplant)
- 1 lb. rigatoni pasta
- 1 medium eggplant
- 1 lb. swordfish, into 1 inch squares
- 1 pint fresh cherry tomatoes, quartered
- 2 cups marinara sauce
- Extra virgin olive oil
- 2 cloves diced garlic
- Fresh basil or mint
- Sea salt
- Chili flakes
Keeping the skin on, dice the eggplant into half-inch squares.
Heat a thin layer of extra virgin olive oil in a 12-inch sauté pan on medium heat.
Add eggplant squares and cook until brown.
Remove eggplant and place on a white paper towel. Set aside.
Add 2 cloves of diced garlic, a pinch of red pepper flakes, and add 4 torn basil or mint leaves to the sauté pan. Saute until garlic is light brown. Add the swordfish and saute until slightly browned. Add the cherry tomatoes and salt to taste. Continue to sauté for 2 minutes.
Add tomato sauce and eggplant. Continue to sauté for 3 minutes.
Boil water in an 8-quart pot adding 1 tablespoon of salt. When water comes to a boil, add the rigatoni and cook until al dente.
Add quartered cherry tomatoes and salt to taste. Continue to sauté for 2 minutes.
Add tomato sauce and then previously fried eggplant squares. Continue to sauté for 3 minutes.
Drain rigatoni and add directly to the sauté pan. Saute for 1 minute mixing well. Pour onto a serving platter and add remaining basil or mint and a drizzle of extra virgin olive oil.
Polpette di Sarde al Sugo (Sardine Balls in Tomato Sauce)
- 2 1/4 pounds (1 k) fresh sardines
- 1/4 pound (100 g) crustless day-old bread, crumbled
- 1 tablespoon pine nuts, chopped
- 2 tablespoons freshly grated pecorino romano here
- 1 tablespoon raisins, chopped
- 1 egg
- A small bunch parsley, chopped
- 2 cups (500 ml) marinara sauce, simmering in a pot
- 1 bay leaf
- Dry white wine
- Extra virgin olive oil
- Salt and pepper to taste
Clean the sardines, removing their heads and boning them; chop them and put them in a bowl. Soak the bread in warm water for a few minutes, squeeze it to remove the excess moisture, and add it to the bowl, together with the parsley, the cheese, the raisins, the pine nuts, the egg, and salt and pepper to taste. Mix well.
Moisten your hands and shape the mixture into small fish balls; roll them in flour, and sauté them in a large skillet with the olive oil to cover the bottom og the pan and the bay leaf. Once they are browned, sprinkle some white wine over them. When the wine has evaporated, use a slotted spoon to transfer the fish balls into the pot of simmering tomato sauce. Cover and cook over a low flame for 40 minutes.
Zucca Rossa in Agrodolce (Sweet and Sour Pumpkin)
- 1 pound sugar pumpkin or acorn squash
- Extra-virgin olive oil
- 2 cloves garlic, finely sliced
- 3 tablespoons honey
- 3 tablespoons red wine vinegar
- Salt and freshly ground black pepper
- 2 tablespoons fresh chopped mint
Cut the squash in half and remove the seeds. Cut the flesh lengthwise into wedges, each about the length of your hand from fingertip to wrist. Remove the rind. In a large skillet, heat enough olive oil to cover the bottom of the pan over medium heat. Add the pumpkin wedges. Cook until soft and deep golden brown, 7 to 8 minutes. Turn the wedges over and add the garlic. Drizzle the pumpkin first with the honey and then with the vinegar over the pumpkin, and season with salt and pepper, to taste. Cook until the liquids reduce to a glaze, turning the pumpkin pieces, if necessary. Add mint and transfer pumpkin wedges to a platter and drizzle pan juices on top. Serve room temperature or hot.
Biancomangiare (Sicilian White Pudding)
- 4-1/4 cups whole cold milk
- 4 oz corn starch
- 1 cup sugar
- Peel of 1 orange, cut into wide strips
- 1 teaspoon cinnamon, optional
- Garnishes: cinnamon, chocolate or almonds
In a saucepan add the milk, sugar and cornstarch in the cold milk. Stir until the sugar and cornstarch dissolve. Add the orange peels and cinnamon, if using. Place over medium heat and let it boil, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon making sure you stir the bottom of the pan or it will burn. When it gets thick take the pan off the heat and remove the orange peels. Pour the mixture into a mold or in single-portion cups and place in the refrigerator for at least 6 to 8 hours. Add garnishes, if desired.
- Lampedusa, the Italian Island Thousands Are Dying to Reach (world.time.com)
Venetian cuisine is usually divided into three main categories that are based on geography: the coastal areas, the plains and the mountains. Each one (especially the plains) can have many local cuisines – each city with its own dishes and preparation. The most common dish across the region is polenta, which is utilized in various ways within the local cuisines.
Coastal areas serve mainly seafood dishes.
In the plains, it is very popular to serve grilled meat (usually a mix of pork, beef and chicken) together with grilled polenta, potatoes and vegetables. Other popular dishes include risotto made with vegetables, mushrooms, pumpkin, radicchio, seafood, pork or chicken livers.
Bigoli (a typical Venetian fresh pasta, similar to a thick spaghetti), handmade fettuccine, ravioli and the similar tortelli (filled with meat, cheese, vegetables or pumpkin) and gnocchi (made from potatoes) are pastas that are served with meat sauce (ragù), often made from duck, and, sometimes, with added mushrooms or peas or the pasta is simply dressed with melted butter.
The mountain area cuisine consists mainly of pork or game meat served with polenta, mushrooms or vegetables and cheese. You may also find some dishes from the Austrian or Tyrolese tradition, such as canederli (potato/ bread dumpling) and sweet or savory strudel. A typical dish is casunziei, hand-made fresh pasta similar to ravioli that usually contain a roasted beet and smoked ricotta stuffing.
Venetian cuisine is typically seasoned with butter, olive oil, sunflower oil, vinegar, white wine, mostarda or salsa verde.
Sweet and Sour Sardines
- 1/2 cup white wine
- 1/4 cup raisins
- 2 lb. sardines, cleaned
- Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
- 3/4 cups olive oil
- 1 large white onion, sliced thin
- 1/3 cup white wine vinegar
- 1/4 cup pine nuts (pignoli)
Combine wine and raisins in a bowl. Soak for 30 minutes; drain and set aside.
Meanwhile, heat the broiler to high. Season sardines with salt and pepper on a baking sheet. Broil, until cooked, about 2 minutes; cool.
Heat oil in a 4-qt. pan over medium-high heat. Add onion; cook until browned, 10–12 minutes. Add vinegar, reduce heat to medium-low and cook until soft, 6–8 minutes. Stir in raisins, pine nuts and salt and pepper; let cool.
Place half the sardines in the bottom of an 8″ x 8″ dish; cover with half the onion mixture. Place remaining sardines on top; cover with the remaining onion mixture.
Marinate the sardines in the refrigerator for 4 hours. Serve with crusty Italian bread.
Bigoli in Salsa
- 14 oz bigoli/whole wheat thick spaghetti
- 5 anchovies
- 2 large onions
- 3 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
- Black pepper
- ½ cup dry white wine
Chop the anchovies and set aside.
Peel the onions and slice as thinly as you possibly can. Heat oil in a skillet with a cover, then turn heat to medium low and add onions. Cover the pan and cook the onions for 10 minutes, stirring frequently until the onions are a light gold color; do not let them brown.
Turn the heat down to low and add the anchovies, breaking them into a paste with a wooden spoon.
Add the wine, a little at a time, letting the wine evaporate before adding more. Add a big pinch of black pepper. Put the lid back on and cook gently on low heat for 10 minutes, so that the onions gradually melt into a creamy caramelized sauce.
Cook the bigoli/spaghetti in salted water according to package directions, then drain and add to the skillet with the onion mix. Turn the heat up high for a minute, mixing thoroughly.
To serve: grind additional fresh black pepper over each dish.
Pollo del Borgo (Chicken of the Village)
- 3 lb chicken, cut into serving pieces
- 2 onions, thinly sliced
- 2 zucchini, sliced into rounds
- 10 cherry tomatoes
- ½ cup tomato puree
- ½ cup chicken broth, plus more if needed
- 1 large bay leaf
- 1 sprig of rosemary
- 3 cloves garlic, minced
- 1 cup dry white wine
- Salt and pepper to taste
- 2 tablespoons butter
- 2 tablespoons of olive oil
- Griled Polenta, recipe below
Heat the butter and oil in a pan large enough to fit all the chicken in a single layer.
Salt and pepper the chicken pieces. Add the chicken to the skillet and brown the pieces on all sides. Remove to a plate.
Add the onions, rosemary and the garlic to the skillet and cook until the onions soften. Return the chicken to the pan.
Add the white wine and cook until it has all evaporated.
Add the tomato puree, the bay leaf, zucchini and chicken broth. Cook for another 40 minutes on a low heat, turning the chicken occasionally and adding broth when needed to keep the sauce from reducing too much. Serve with grilled polenta.
- 1 1/2 tablespoons coarse salt
- 1 2/3 cups polenta
- 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
Put salt into 7 cups of cold water in a medium heavy pot. Add polenta and whisk. Bring to a boil over high heat, stirring often; add oil, then reduce heat to medium and continue cooking, stirring often with a wooden spoon, until polenta thickens and pulls away slightly from the bottom and sides of the pot, 20–30 minutes (depending on the polenta grind).
Pour into a greased square or rectangle glass dish; cool.
Turn out onto a bread board and cut into serving pieces with a wet knife.
Grill on a very hot, dry grill or sear in a nonstick skillet until golden brown.
Pincia – Veneto Bread Pudding
The Pincia is one of the oldest sweets in the Venice region. It’s traditionally served at Christmas.
- 1 lb (3 cups) stale bread without the crust, cut into small cubes
- 6 cups milk
- 3/4 cups all purpose flour
- 2 tablespoons butter
- 1/2 cup sugar
- 1/4 cup raisins
- 2 eggs
- Pinch of salt
- 1/2 teaspoon ground fennel or mace
- 1/4 cup dry plain breadcrumbs
- 1/4 cup sliced almonds
- Powdered sugar
Grease a 9×13 inch baking pan and sprinkle with the bread crumbs. Preheat oven to 350 degrees F.
Soak the raisins in warm water to cover. Put the bread cubes in a bowl and pour the milk over the bread.
let both soak for half an hour. Drain the raisins.
Beat the butter, sugar and eggs in an electric mixer. Add the flour, ground fennel and the soaked raisins. Mix well.
Pour butter/egg mixture over the bread/milk mixture and mix well.
Pour the mixture into the prepared pan and sprinkle the top with sliced almonds.
Bake for about an hour until firm or until a knife inserted in the center comes out clean.
Let cool in the pan; remove and dust with powdered sugar.
- Brudet (Croatian Seafood Stew) (thedomesticman.com)
- Polenta Chips (incrednibbles.wordpress.com)
Because Sicily is at a strategic point in the Mediterranean, on a route where east meets west, it’s not surprising that everyone wanted a piece of this fertile land. Yet to understand Sicily’s complex history, you have to understand the many peoples, who have come and gone from the island, and their legacies that are still embedded in the culture, the architecture and the language. Colonized by the Phoenicians and the Greeks and fought over in the Punic Wars, its architectural and artistic remains bear witness to its past grandeur found in the great Greek temples and Roman mosaics located in the Piazza Armerina. The Byzantine influence in Sicily begins with the capture of the island from the Ostrogoths in 535. The clash between the pope and the Byzantine emperor prompted the emperor to give the Patriarch of Constantinople jurisdiction over Sicily, removing it from papal rule. As a result a large number of Greeks moved there from the Balkans to flee from invasions by the Slavs. It was largely Byzantine in culture by the 9th. century, when a new threat emerged. In 827 the Arab peoples began arriving from North Africa, in what amounted to a slow conquest of the island.
The last Byzantine stronghold fell to the Arabs in AD 965, beginning a century of Muslim rule. Arabs settled in large numbers and many Christians converted to Islam. Sicily in the 11th. century was a mixed community of Arab Muslims and Greek Christians, when a third element arrived in a new wave of conquest. The newcomers were Latin Christians. The pope in 1059, wishing to recover Sicily, granted feudal rights over the island to the Normans. One of them, Roger I, the first Norman count of Sicily, completed the conquest of the island in 1091 and set a pattern which characterized Sicily for more than a century. Roger I brought Christianity to the island, but he also encouraged the Greeks and Muslims to continue to live in Sicilian towns and he employed them in his army. The complexity of this culture is evident in the fact that the Normans issued their official documents in three languages – Latin, Greek and Arabic. The small palace chapel in Palermo, with its walls covered in bright pictorial mosaic, is one of the most exquisite buildings of the Middle Ages. Known as the Capella Palatina (Latin for ‘palace chapel’), it was begun in 1132 and completed around 1189. The mosaics are in the Greek tradition, created by craftsmen from Constantinople. Round the walls are sequences of scenes from the Old Testament and scenes from the lives of St. Peter and St. Paul.
The roof of the Capella Palatina, by contrast, is unlike anything in a Byzantine church. Constructed in vaulted wood and carved and painted in intricate patterns, it would seem at home in a pavilion of a Muslim palace or in a covered section of a mosque. The sturdy round arches supporting the walls are from yet another tradition – that of European Romanesque. Classical pillars, inherited from an earlier period of Sicily’s rich history, complete the influences seen in this building. Sicily endured numerous rulers and ruling countries during the centuries that followed and in 1282 the Sicilians revolted against the Anjou French in the dramatic episode, known as the Sicilian Vespers, and ceded sovereignty to Peter III, King of Aragon [Spain]. In 1442 Alphonso V of Aragon reunited the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples.
In 1738 the Treaty of Utrecht lead to the New Kingdom of Two Sicilies and in 1860 Garibaldi lead forces from the Kingdom of Savoy and conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, creating the Kingdom of Italy, the first unitary government of Sicily and the Italian peninsula since the Roman Empire. 1860 was not the end of Sicily’s troubles, however. In the late 19th. century northern Italy was rapidly industrializing, while the south remained agricultural. Sicily in particular lost population to the north and in the 1890’s massive emigration to America began. Industrial growth was slow in Sicily, with the main non-agricultural activity being sulfur mining. In 1901 there were violent clashes between striking workers and police and in 1920 there was a full-blown farmers’ rebellion against landowners, in which kidnapping was first used as a political tool. The Mafia emerged as a major force in these years, being used to break up workers’ organizations and to assassinate state officials.
The right-wing Christian Democrat party was founded in Sicily. Socialist uprisings shut down Milan and Turin in 1920 and in 1922 Benito Mussolini’s Fascists seized the government in a coup. Political repression was the norm and in 1930 Mussolini sent a special prefect to try to stamp out the Mafia, who were helping Sicilian landowners fight the Fascists. Some of the Mafiosi (including the notorious Lucky Luciano) emigrated to America; those who stayed became the main anti-Fascist group in Italy. Sicily was the bane of Mussolini’s existence. Sicily suffered badly during the war. In July 1943 US forces landed in western Sicily and the British and Canadians landed in eastern Sicily. Many hard battles were fought and a number of cities were bombed. Postwar Sicily remained very troubled. Sicilian separatists waged an armed rebellion against Rome in 1944-46. Bandits, police and Mafiosi fought battles and also switched sides in complicated double-crosses, but all three generally united to suppress Communists, labor organizers and peasant cooperatives.
The Truman Doctrine, an American commitment to helping democratic European governments rebuild and fight Communism, led to very flawed outcomes. Most historians think that by 1950 a covert alliance had formed between the Christian Democrats, the police and the Mafia, with American approval, in which, preventing land reform in Sicily, was the price of keeping the Communists out of power. Even in the late 20th. century and early 21st. century, the Mafia is a strong influence on the island, in spite of a campaign against it, by the leaders in power in the 1980’s and 1990’s. Modern Sicilians are a complex group who, dispossessed for centuries, now find themselves custodians of the cultural monuments of their oppressors and their history. The visitor to Sicily senses a resurgence of interest and pride in their past and the beauty and richness of their island and. with visitors all year round, it provides the locals with a source of sustainable economic income.
A major interest of tourists is Mount Etna, an active volcano on the east coast of Sicily, close to Messina and Catania. It lies above the convergent plate margin between the African Plate and the Eurasian Plate. It is the tallest active volcano in Europe, currently standing 10,922 ft high, though this varies with summit eruptions and it is the highest mountain in Italy, south of the Alps.
The Food of Sicily
Sicily has gained more autonomy from mainland Italy since the end of World War II, but it has also faced many obstacles – Mafia interference, lingering ties with a defunct feudal system and devastating earthquakes – that have hampered progress and economic stability. To make ends meet many women now work outside of the home and depend on family to look after the children. Yet urban Sicilians struggle to hold onto traditional ways. Many prepare homemade meals and drive to the country to buy wine, olive oil and fresh vegetables from local growers. Those with country houses often have a garden and preserve their harvest for year-round consumption. Regardless of economic circumstances, all Sicilians consider food a priority; they demand quality and often, especially during holidays, turn a blind eye to cost.
Most people prefer a very simple cuisine for everyday using the products from the surrounding seas and the strong Sicilian sun drenched fields. Fresh fish particularly tuna, swordfish, octopus, squid, sardines and anchovies serve as a mainstay of the diet. Tomatoes have full-bodied taste, unlike any others, and sauces made with them give distinctive flavor to many favorite pasta and meat dishes. Vine-ripened tomatoes are available most of the year, but they are also sun-dried for the months when they are not. Likewise, olives and grapes are extraordinarily flavorful and, in recent years, fine Sicilian olive oils and wines have received international prizes.
Sicilian sweets are different from those you find in mainland Italy. Adorned with candied fruit, flavored with nuts and enriched with sheep’s milk ricotta (as compared with the milder cows’ milk version), they owe their origins, like lots of other Sicilian foods, to the island’s many layers of history, most notably the conquest by Saracen invaders from North Africa. By the end of the tenth century, the Saracens had introduced pistachios, oranges, lemons and dates, as well as, refined sugar and spices, such as cinnamon and cloves. They brought the art of preparing elaborate pastries, ices, candied fruit and almond and pistachio-based confections. Later, these traditions blended with others; chocolate arrived from Spain during the Renaissance and in the 19th century Swiss pastry chefs, who had migrated to Sicily, started blending it with ricotta in desserts. As a result, Sicilians have an astonishing repertoire of sweets, from gelato heaped into a brioche—the bun is a legacy of the French influence on Sicilian food—to thick puddings made with everything from coffee to watermelon juice to the ricotta-filled cannoli that are beloved around the world.
Typical Sicilian DishesAs you can tell from the recipes below, Sicilians love sardines, eggplant and anchovies.
Pasta alla Norma: Widely found all over Sicily, this dish consists of slowly-cooked eggplant chunks tossed into a basic tomato sauce with thyme, dried oregano, and grated Pecorino cheese, then tossed with pasta and garnished with grated ricotta salata. Impanata di Pesce Spada: (Swordfish pie) This pie is undoubtedly a legacy of the Spanish invaders. It is bursting with all the wonderful tastes of Sicily: swordfish, olives, raisins, pine nuts, caper, and cheese. Panelle di Ciciri: A fritter made with chickpea flour and parsley and then deep-fried in olive oil. In Palermo the fritters are sprinkled with a few drops of lemon juice and often used for bread or rolls. Maccu di Favi: This very old recipe is known all over southern Italy and is the oldest of all Mediterranean soups. It was served for centuries as the midday meal of peasants, who carried it with them when they went to work in the fields. The soup is made with dried fava beans, wild fennel and chili pepper. Toasted bread is placed in soup bowls and drizzled with olive oil and the soup is ladled on top. The name comes from maccare which means “to crush.” The Sicilian touch is to add wild fennel. Caponata: A slow-cooked ratatouille-like mix of eggplants, onions, tomato, olives, pine nuts and extra-virgin olive oil. Caponata is usually served cold or at room temperature.
Cuscusu: The apex of Arab-Sicilian cuisine; its successful preparation is considered the height of culinary art. The starting point for all couscous recipes is the same. Semolina grains are slowly poured into a large, round terra-cotta dish with sloping sides called a mafaradda and formed into small pellets by hand. The process of raking, rolling, aerating and forming the pellets is called incocciata by the Sicilians. When the couscous pellets are formed they are then steamed over boiling fish broth in a couscoussiere. The fish broth is made using a three-to-one ratio of white fish to oily fish. The fish used to make the broth is not eaten. Small fish or shrimp are cooked and eaten with couscous. Frittedda: (Sicilian sweet and sour vegetables) Artichokes which have been cooked in water and lemon juice are sauteed with onions and sprinkled with nutmeg and salt and pepper. Fava beans and peas are added to this mixture. The mixture is tossed with sugar and vinegar and served cool.
Pollo all’Arancia alla Catanese: (Orange chicken Catania style) Chicken is not very popular in Sicily, presumably because the hens are kept for the eggs they produce. The cooks of Catania have taken advantage of the fragrant orange groves that cover their hillsides to come up with this unusual chicken dish. Chicken pieces are rubbed with garlic, rosemary, mint and nutmeg. The chicken is then sautéed with onion in olive oil until brown. Orange juice is added and the chicken is roasted in a covered skillet until tender. Tummala: (Rice Timbale) This is an elaborate casserole from eastern Sicily, which is said to derive its name from that of Mohammed Ibn Thummah, an emir of Catania during the Arab occupation. The casserole includes chicken, celery, onion, tomatoes, carrots, bread crumbs, veal meatballs, cheese, sausage, rice and eggs in layers as follows: a layer of rice, a layer of meatballs and chicken, a layer of cheese, a layer of rice, a layer of sausage and meatballs and a layer of rice and chicken topped by beaten eggs and cheese.
Sfingi or Zeppole di San Giuseppe: a fried dough delicacy resembling a holeless doughnut prepared for the feast of San Guiseppe (St. Joseph) on March 19. Cuccia: a sweet wheat dish prepared after soaking the wheat grains overnight. It is connected with the festival of Santa Lucia on December 13. Sorbetto and Gelato: the Arabs mixed the summer unmelted snows of Mt. Etna with fruit-flavored syrups to produce a cooling confection which later developed into sherbet and, with the addition of milk and/or cream, the dessert became gelato. Granita: simple ices made by pouring flavors like lemon, coffee and almond milk over granulated ice.
Make Some Sicilian Inspired Recipes At Home
Stuffed and Grilled EggplantsThis antipasto or side dish is pleasant and goes well with grilled food. It is a very convenient dish because it can be prepared in advance. The stuffing of capers, anchovies and cheese gives a typical Sicilian taste to the stuffed grilled eggplants. Any leftovers are delicious the next day.
Serves 4 to 6 Ingredients
- 2 medium size eggplants
- ¾ cup of olive oil, divided
- 12 slices of cheese (provolone or mozzarella)
- 12 fillets of anchovies
- 3 tablespoons of capers, rinsed
- 1 tablespoon of pine nuts
- Chopped Italian parsley
- Salt and pepper
Directions: Wash eggplants, remove stalks and slice horizontally with the skin on, about ½ inch thick. Remove excessive skin from first and last slice of each eggplant. Place eggplants in a colander, salt lightly and set aside for 20 minutes. Rinse the sliced eggplant and drain for a few minutes. Gently pat dry with a clean dish towel or paper towels. Brush both sides with oil and grill the eggplant slices until tender, about 3 minutes on each side. If a grill is not available use the oven broiler, cooking it for 5 minutes on each side or until tender. Place grilled eggplants in a pan or large dish and place a slice of the cheese on each slice, add one fillet of anchovy broken in pieces, a few capers, a few pine nuts, some parsley and a sprinkle of pepper. Fold and roll up each slice, starting at the narrow side of the slice and secure with a wooden toothpick and set aside. When ready to serve, grill the eggplant rollatini for a few minutes until hot and tender, 3 to 4 minutes. If a grill is not available, place rollatini in an oiled pan 11” X 7”, drizzle with oil and bake in a hot oven at 400 degrees F. for about 10 minutes. Place cooked eggplant in a serving dish; drizzle with olive oil and serve.
Mussel PieMy friend Andy recently took a trip to Sicily and ate a variation of this Mussel Pie, called Pepata di Cozze, which means Peppered Mussels in Italian, in a restaurant in Sicily. He took pictures of this great meal and I am including his pictures in this post. I searched for a recipe that would come close to the dish he experienced in Sicily and, came up with this recipe that is close, but not exactly the same. You will have to take a trip to Sicily to get the original.
- 8 oz pizza dough
- 1 1/2 – 2 pints mussels
- 4 leeks, finely sliced
- 1 tablespoon each chopped parsley
- 1 sprig each marjoram and thyme
- 1 oz butter
- 1 cup white wine
- 1 orange
- Salt and pepper
Directions: Scrub and clean the mussels. Melt the butter in the bottom of a large pan which has a lid. Cook the leeks in the butter until just transparent. Add the wine and the juice of one orange to the pan. Steam open the mussels in this liquid and reserve the liquor in which they are cooked. Put the mussels and herbs in a deep pie dish or casserole, pour the liquid with the leeks over the mussels. Season with salt and pepper. Roll pizza dough just large enough to cover the top of the casserole dish. Cover the top of the dish and seal the dough to the casserole dish. Cut a hole in the top of the dough. Heat oven to 425°F for 20 – 25 minutes until the dough is lightly brown. When the pie is done, remove from the oven, allow to cool for a few minutes.
Sarde a Beccafico (Stuffed Sardines)
This filling will work in fish fillets, if you do not have access to sardines.
4 servings Ingredients:
- 1 3/4 pounds sardines
- 1/2 cup fresh breadcrumbs
- 5 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
- Juice of 1 lemon
- Salt and pepper to taste
- 4 salt-packed anchovies
- 1 sprig parsley minced
- 3 1/2 tablespoons capers
- 3 tablespoons raisins
- 1/4 cup pine nuts
- 3 bay leaves
- Zest from 1 lemon
- 1/2 cup almonds or pistachios toasted and chopped
- 3 1/2 tablespoons black olives pitted and minced
- 1 onion chopped
- 1 clove garlic chopped
- 1 shallot chopped
- 2/3 cup Pecorino cheese grated
Directions: Soak raisins in warm water for 20 minutes. Prepare the sardines: remove the scales and the head, but not the tail. Hold each sardine belly-side up and cut along its belly so the fish opens up like a book. Remove insides and bones. Leave tails intact. Rinse in cold water, dry and season by rubbing with bay leaf. Heat one tablespoon of oil in a skillet over medium heat, stir in fresh breadcrumbs and saute for a couple of minutes until golden. Set aside in a bowl to cool down slightly. Drain raisins and squeeze out all excess water. Rinse anchovies and capers in running water to remove salt. Add to the breadcrumb mixture along with chopped pine nuts and parsley. Season with salt and pepper. Optional additions: chopped garlic, shallot or onion, pitted olives, toasted almonds and lemon zest and grated Pecorino cheese. Mix well and spread a teaspoon of this mixture on the inside of the sardines, pressing down lightly with your fingers. Roll up the sardines (keeping the filling inside) with the tail sticking up. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper and arrange the stuffed sardines. Add the bay leaf, sprinkle each roll with a tablespoon of bread crumbs and drizzle on the remaining oil. Cook in a preheated 420°F oven for 15-20 minutes. Dress with lemon juice and serve.
Pasta alla NormaThis recipe originated in Catania , a city on the eastern side of Sicily that sits on the shadow of Mount Etna . Catania is a city subjected to the temperament of Mount Etna , the highest and only active volcano in Europe. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions have destroyed this city several times. Yet the city has managed to rebuild. It is a vibrant and modern metropolis, with wide streets and majestic palaces; ancient monuments reminiscent of the Greek and Roman occupation and contemporary buildings where the enterprising people of Catania live and work to make it the most industrious and energetic city of Sicily. This dish is called Pasta alla Norma in honor of Vincenzo Bellini, who composed the opera Norma in 1831. The chef who created this dish wanted to honor Bellini, but he also wanted to immortalize Mount Etna. The spaghetti and the fried eggplants were the mountains, the tomato sauce portrayed the lava and the grated ricotta salata, the eternal snow of the Mt. Etna.
- 3 tablespoons of olive oil, divided
- 1 medium onion, finely diced
- 1 can of 14 oz. Italian peeled tomatoes, undrained and cut in small pieces
- 1/4 cup basil leaves, chopped
- 3 Italian eggplants cut into cubes, sprinkled with salt and placed in colander for 30 minutes
- 1 lb. of your preferred pasta
- 1/2 lb. grated aged Ricotta Salata cheese (if you cannot find it, use a mild aged feta cheese)
- 12 whole basil leaves for garnish
- Salt and pepper to taste
Directions: The Sauce Over a medium flame, heat 1 tablespoon of olive oil in a 12 inch saute pan. Add diced onions and sauté until golden, about 5 to 7 minutes. Add tomatoes, raise heat to high and cook for an additional 3 minutes stirring occasionally. Add chopped basil, salt and pepper to taste. Lower the flame and simmer for about 15 minutes or until the sauce is thick. The Eggplant Pat dry the eggplants with a clean dish towel or paper towels. Brown the cubes in the remaining olive oil. Place eggplants on paper towels to drain the oil and set aside. The Pasta Cook pasta according to package directions, reducing recommended cooking time by 2 minutes. Drain pasta well and put back in pot with the tomato sauce. Mix for 2 minutes on a low heat or until pasta and sauce are well combined. Stir in reserved eggplant and toss to combine. Stir in remaining basil and season with salt. To serve, transfer pasta to a platter and garnish with ricotta salata.
Sicilian Cassata: Ricotta CakeThe ricotta cheese needs to be drained overnight before starting the recipe.
Serves: 10 servings Ingredients
- 2 pounds whole milk ricotta
- 2 cups powdered sugar
- 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
- 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
- 1/2 cup chocolate chips
- 1 cup candied fruit with citron
- 1 (10-inch) pre-baked sponge cake (homemade or store bought, pound cake may be used
Directions Place the ricotta into a fine mesh sieve and nestle this over a bowl, place in the refrigerator overnight to allow the excess moisture to drain out before proceeding with the cassata recipe. Place the ricotta into the bowl of a mixer and beat with the paddle attachment until the curds smooth out. Mix the drained and beaten ricotta with 1 cup powdered sugar, vanilla extract, cinnamon, chocolate chips and half the candied fruit. Set aside. Lightly spray a 10-inch springform pan with canola oil spray. Slice the sponge cake very thinly so that the springform may be lined with it in an even layer. Line the sides and bottom of the pan with the sponge cake. Pour the ricotta filling into the cake-lined pan. Place a final layer of cake over the ricotta filling; this now creates the bottom to the cassata. Refrigerate the cassata overnight to firm the filling. Invert the springform pan on a wide platter. Open the hinge and remove the springform sides and bottom. The cassata may now be finished by covering with a heavy coating of the remaining powdered sugar and the remaining candied fruits. Alternately, you can make a white glaze for the top of the cake or spread sweetened whipped cream over the cake and decorate it with fresh fruit. Some Italian cooks like to decorate the top with marzipan cutouts. Slice thinly and serve.
- Sicilian breakfast: granita and brioche. (chocolatespoonandthecamera.wordpress.com)
- Epic Drives: Driving the Targa Florio in Sicily in a 2013 Porsche Boxster S (wot.motortrend.com)
- Farewell to Sicily (annwebsterblog.com)
- Five New Sicily-Inspired Ways to Cook Cauliflower (atlantablackstar.com)
- Sicily Wine Tour 2013 (blueskyitaly.wordpress.com)
- Hints and Tips on Driving in Sicily: Roads, and other Sicilian Driving Hazards (siciliangodmother.wordpress.com)