This is the second post in the series Cooking the Mediterranean Countries. You can read the first post with this link.
Europe’s exploration of the world began in the 15th century and it was Portugal who pioneered what came to be known as the “Age of Discovery”. Portugal was the first to explore the Atlantic Ocean and the west coast of Africa and the first to colonize the Azores and other nearby islands. In 1488, Portuguese explorer, Bartholomew Dias, was the first to sail around the southern tip of Africa and in 1498 his countryman, Vasco da Gama, repeated the trip, making it as far as India. Portugal would establish ports as far west as Brazil, as far east as Japan and along the coasts of Africa, India and China. There were several reasons for the Portuguese to explore the world via the sea, but the overriding purpose was to discover a sea route around Africa to the east, with its rich promise of trade in valuable spices.
When Ancel Keys and his team of researchers studied and characterized the Mediterranean diet and compared it with the eating habits of most of the developed countries during that time period, they identified it as the “Diet of the Poor”. According to Portuguese gastronomist, Maria de Lourdes Modesto and Keys, Portugal was included in their observations and studies, and Keys considered Portugal to have a pure “Mediterranean” diet. However, Salazar, the leader of Portugal at the time, did not want the name of Portugal included in the “diet of the poor”.
While Portugal’s shores are technically not on the Mediterranean Sea, the country is considered to have a typical Mediterranean diet. The basics of the Portuguese diet include vegetables, fruit, good quality bread, unprocessed cereals, dried and fresh legumes (beans, chickpeas, broad beans, etc.), dried fruits and nuts (walnuts, almonds, chestnuts, raisins, etc.), olive oil as the main source of fat and seafood instead of red meat.
A Portuguese breakfast often consists of fresh bread, cheese or jam, accompanied with coffee, milk, tea or hot chocolate. A small espresso coffee (sometimes called a bica after the spout of the coffee machine) is a very popular breakfast beverage.
Lunch, often lasting over an hour, is served between noon and 2 o’clock or between 1 and 3 o’clock, and dinner is generally served late, around 8 o’clock in the evening. There are usually three main courses for lunch and dinner. Soup is usually the first course. A well-known Portuguese soup is caldo verde, which is made with potato, shredded cabbage and chunks of chouriço (a spicy Portuguese sausage) There are a wide variety of cheeses, usually made from the milk of sheep, goats or cows. The most famous are queijo da serra from the region of Serra da Estrela, Queijo São Jorge from the Portuguese island of São Jorge and Requeijão.
Portugal is a seafaring nation with a well-developed fishing industry and this is reflected in the amount of fish and seafood eaten. The country has Europe’s highest fish consumption per capita. Fish is served grilled, boiled, poached, simmered, fried, stewed (often in clay pot), roasted or steamed. Cod is almost always used dried and salted because the Portuguese fishing tradition in the North Atlantic was developed before the invention of refrigeration. Simpler fish dishes are often flavored with extra virgin olive oil and white wine vinegar.
Eating meat and poultry on a daily basis was historically a privilege of the upper classes and meat was not often on the Portuguese table. When meat is eaten it is often in a dish with other ingredients. A typical way Portuguese eat meat is in a dish is called cozido à portuguesa, which somewhat parallels the French pot au feu or the New England boiled dinner.
Typical desserts include arroz doce (rice pudding decorated with cinnamon) and caramel custard.
Some Traditional Portuguese Dishes
COZIDO A PORTUGUESA
Portuguese stew is the perfect example of the importance of using all the meat an animal can provide. This stew can include beef, pork, chicken and a variety of pork derivatives such as blood sausages and smoked pork parts.
The most traditional of Portuguese soups is simply: onions, potatoes and kale or cabbage, cooked with garlic and olive oil in a clay pot. This soup would normally be served with a slice of “linguica” ( smoked pork sausage) and cornbread (broa).
BOLINHOS DE BACALHAU
These codfish fritters can be eaten as a starter or snack or along with rice and salad as a main dish. The fritters are made of shredded codfish, potatoes, eggs and parsley and cooked until crispy.
ALHEIRA DE MIRANDELA
Alheira is a type of Portuguese sausage made from meats that may include veal, chicken, duck and rabbit, compacted together with bread. If you have “alheira de caça” it means that it will only have game meat. This unusual sausage was created by the Jewish residents in Portugal when they were forced to convert to Christianity. Their religion wouldn’t allow them to eat pork but by preparing this sausage looking dish, they could easily fool others. The dish has become traditional throughout Portugal.
Charcoal-grilled sardines are the most typical dish served in Lisbon. You can eat it in restaurants or from a street vendor during the Santo António festivities in June. They are most often served on top of a slice of cornbread, or with a roasted pepper salad or boiled vegetables.
Cook Portuguese Style Recipes At Home
Caldeirada (Portuguese Fish Stew)
2 onions, sliced
2 tomatoes, sliced
1 bell pepper, sliced (red or green)
1 bunch fresh parsley
1 laurel leaf (bay leaf)
2 lbs (1 kg) fish ( chose from various kinds, mackerel, swordfish, tuna, skate, sea bass, monkfish, hake, haddock, etc.)
6 large potatoes, sliced
4-5 saffron threads
1 tablespoon salt
1/2 cup white wine
1/2 cup water
1/2 cup olive oil
In a large pot put layers of onions, tomatoes, fish, peppers and potatoes.
Continue to make layers until all the ingredients are used. Place the parsley, laurel leaf, saffron and salt on top.
Add the wine, water and olive oil.
Bring to a simmer over low heat and cook for about 45 minutes. Shake the pan once in a while.
DO NOT STIR, just shake the pan.
Clams With Chouriço (Portuguese Sausage)
3 dozen littleneck clams, scrubbed
7 ounces chouriço sausage, sliced
1 sliced leeks or onion
1 chili pepper, sliced thinly
2 tablespoons olive oil
3 cloves garlic, minced
1 cup white wine
2 plum tomatoes, diced
2 bay leaves
2 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley
Lemon slice, for garnish
In a large pan heat the oil and fry the chouriço until lightly browned.
Add the leeks, chili, bay leaf and garlic and saute for 3 minutes.
Add the wine, diced tomatoes and bay leaf and bring to a boil.
Add the clams cover the pan and steam for 5 minutes until all the clams are opened.
Throw out any that do not open. Garnish with lemons and parsley.
Serve with bread to soak up the juices.
Portuguese Cornbread (Broa)
1 1/2 cups yellow cornmeal
1 1/2 teaspoons salt
1 1/4 cups boiling water
1 tablespoon olive oil
2 (1/4 ounce) packages dry yeast
1 ½ – 2 cups bread flour
Grind cornmeal to a powder in a food processor. You may skip this step, but the bread will not be as smooth.
Mix 1 cup of powdered cornmeal, salt and water until smooth.
Add olive oil and cool to lukewarm.
Blend in the yeast. Gradually add the remaining cornmeal and 1 1/2 cups of bread flour, mixing constantly.
Add more flour if the dough is still sticky. Knead until firm.
Let rise in a greased bowl until double in volume.
Shape into round loaf and let rise until double.
Bake at 350 degree Fs for about 30 to 40 minutes.
Grilled Red Snapper with Parsley Sauce
1 whole red snapper (2.2 lb or 1 kg), cleaned, trimmed
2 garlic cloves, mince
Juice of ½ lemon
Sea or coarse salt
Freshly ground black pepper
½ cup (125 mL) extra virgin olive oil
2 tbsp (30 mL) red wine vinegar
4 tbsp (60 mL) minced red onion
½ cup (125 mL) chopped flat-leaf parsley
2 tbsp (30 mL) capers
1 garlic clove, chopped
Preheat a barbecue or broiler until hot.
Make the parsley sauce in a bowl by whisking together the oil, vinegar, onion, parsley, capers and garlic. Set aside.
Season the fish with garlic, lemon juice, salt and pepper and brush or drizzle with oil.
Grill or broil the fish for five minutes on each side. Transfer to a heated platter, spread with parsley sauce and serve.
Portuguese Rice Pudding, Arroz Doce
2 1/4 cups water
1/2 teaspoon salt
Peel of one lemon cut into long strips (avoid as much of the white pith as possible)
1 cup short-grain rice (arborio is a good choice)
2 cups hot milk (you can substitute some of this with cream, if you like, for a richer consistency and flavor)
Ground cinnamon to sprinkle on top
Place the water, salt and lemon peel into a medium pan and bring to a boil.
Reduce the heat to low and allow the water to simmer with a lid on for about 15 minutes.
Remove the lemon peel from the water with a slotted spoon and discard.
Add the rice to the water and bring it back up to a boil.
Then reduce it to a simmer and allow the rice to absorb all of the water (about 10 minutes).
Slowly add the hot milk, about 1/2 cup at a time, to the rice mixture. After each addition, allow the liquid to be absorbed before adding the next batch of milk.
Stir frequently and keep the heat at low, so that the rice does not burn at the bottom of the pan. This should take about 25 to 30 minutes.
Pour the rice into a serving dish. Sprinkle the top with the cinnamon.
Chill before serving.
Are you bored from eating the same things for dinner week after week? One of the best ways to add variety and interest to your meals is to experiment with ingredients you haven’t used before or use your favorites in a new way. Add different seasonings and herbs to change your old recipes. Try new combinations of ingredients. Hopefully, the recipes below will inspire you.
Serve this entrée with cooked orzo pasta or couscous and sautéed green beans.
- 8 small cloves garlic
- Half of a 6 1/2 ounce jar oil-packed sun-dried tomatoes (1/3 cup)
- 1/2 cup pitted mixed green olives
- Four 5 ounce red snapper fillets with skin or other firm-flesh white fish
- 1/4 cup crumbled feta cheese
- Fresh oregano leaves
- 8 whole Pepperoncini (Italian pickled peppers)
Peel the garlic cloves and with the side of a wide knife smash garlic.
Drain 2 tablespoons of oil from the sun dried tomatoes and heat the oil in extra-large skillet.
Add sun dried tomatoes, olives and garlic to the hot oil. Cook 2 to 3 minutes, until garlic is golden. Use a slotted spoon to the remove the tomato-olive mixture. Leave the oil in the skillet to cook the fish. Set aside the tomato-olive mixture.
Rinse and pat fish dry with paper towels. Season with salt and pepper. Cook fish, skin side down, in the hot oil 5 minutes for each 1/2 inch thickness of fish or until the skin is golden and crisp and the fish flakes easily when tested with a fork, turning once halfway through cooking. Remove skin, if desired.
To serve, top fish with tomato-olive mixture, cheese, chopped fresh oregano and pepperoncini.
Spicy Grilled Steak & Sweet Potatoes
Cook the sweet potatoes and onions in a foil packet alongside the steak on the grill. Serve with steamed fresh spinach.
- 1/2 teaspoon ground allspice
- 1/2 teaspoon ground cumin
- 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
- 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt
- 1/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon
- 1/4 teaspoon ground coriander
- 1/4 teaspoon cayenne pepper
- 8 ounces sirloin, rib-eye or strip steak, trimmed and cut into 2 portions
- 1 medium sweet potato, peeled and very thinly sliced
- 1 small red onion, halved and very thinly sliced
- 2 teaspoons olive oil
- 1/2 teaspoon freshly grated orange zest
- Cooking spray
Preheat grill to high and oil the grates.
Combine allspice, cumin, ginger, salt, cinnamon, coriander and cayenne in a medium bowl. Remove 2 1/4 teaspoons for the steak.
Sprinkle the steaks with 2 1/4 teaspoons of the spice mixture.
Add the sliced sweet potato and onion to the bowl with the remaining spice mixture along with the oil and orange zest; toss to coat.
Place two 24-inch sheets of foil on top of each other (the double layers will help protect the ingredients from burning). Generously coat the top piece with cooking spray.
Spread the sweet potato mixture in the center of the foil in a thin layer. Bring the short ends of foil together, fold over and pinch to seal. Pinch the seams together along the sides to seal the packet.
Place the packet on one side of the grill and cook, turning once, about 6 minutes per side.
Cook the steaks on the other side of the grill, turning once, 3 to 4 minutes per side for medium-rare. Transfer to serving plates and let rest while the foil packets finish cooking.
Open the packets (be careful of steam) and serve alongside the steaks with steamed spinach.
Linguine with Tomatoes, Zucchini and Herbs
Serve this dish with a mixed green salad and crusty Italian bread.
- 1 pound fresh ripe tomatoes, cored and chopped
- 1 tablespoon chopped basil
- 1 tablespoon chopped parsley
- 2 garlic cloves, minced
- 2 teaspoons kosher salt
- 1 small red chili pepper, seeded and minced
- 1/3 cup extra-virgin olive oil
- 12 ounces linguine
- 3 young, thin zucchini, sliced
- 1/4 cup freshly grated Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, plus more for serving
In a large bowl, mix the tomatoes with the basil, parsley, garlic, salt, chili and olive oil.
In a large pot of boiling salted water, cook the linguine until al dente; drain well.
Add the linguine to the bowl with the tomato mixture along with the sliced zucchini and toss.
Add the 1/4 cup of grated cheese, toss again and serve in pasta bowls, passing more cheese at the table.
Lemony Chicken with Cucumber Salad
Serve this dish with warm pita bread
For the salad:
- 2 tablespoons lemon juice
- 3 tablespoons olive oil
- 1/2 teaspoon Dijon mustard
- 1 teaspoon honey
- 1 teaspoon chopped fresh dill
- 2 medium tomatoes; chopped
- 1 cup diced cucumber
- 4 ounces feta cheese, crumbled
- Salt and freshly ground black pepper
For the chicken:
- 2 boneless and skinless chicken breasts
- 1/4 cup lemon juice
- 2 tablespoons olive oil plus more for cooking
- 3 garlic cloves; minced
- 2 tablespoons chopped fresh dill
- 1/2 teaspoon kosher salt
- 1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
For the salad
Whisk lemon juice, olive oil, mustard, honey and dill in a medium bowl. Add tomatoes, cucumber and feta cheese. Toss gently, season to taste with salt and pepper. Refrigerate at least 20 minutes or up to a day.
For the chicken:
Combine lemon juice, olive oil, garlic, dill, salt and pepper in a small bowl. Use the back of a small spoon to press garlic and dill into the other ingredients.
Pour the marinade into a resealable plastic bag or small rimmed dish and add the chicken. Marinate 20 to 30 minutes at room temperature or up to 2 hours in the refrigerator. Remove the chicken from the marinade and discard the marinade.
Heat 2 tablespoons of olive oil in a medium frying pan (with lid) over medium-high heat. As soon as the oil is hot, add the chicken. Cook 2 to 3 minutes until golden. Turn, reduce heat to low, then cover the pan with the lid. Cook 10 to 15 minutes or until an instant read thermometer reads 165 degrees F (74C) when inserted into the thickest part of the breast.
Transfer chicken to a plate and cover loosely with aluminum foil. Rest 5 minutes. Serve alongside the salad.
Grilled Pork Kabobs
Serve this dish with your favorite coleslaw or use the recipe below.
- 2/3 cup orange marmalade
- 2 teaspoons finely chopped fresh rosemary leaves
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1 lb sweet potatoes, peeled, cut into 1-inch pieces
- 4 tablespoons water
- 1 lb pork tenderloin, cut into 1-inch pieces
- 2 zucchini, cut into 1-inch pieces
Heat a gas or charcoal grill and oil the grill grates.
In a 1-quart saucepan, heat marmalade, rosemary and salt to boiling, stirring frequently. Remove from heat; set aside.
In a 1-quart microwavable bowl, place sweet potato pieces and water. Cover loosely with a microwavable paper towel. Microwave on High 2 to 3 minutes, stirring once, just until potatoes are tender (do not overcook). Drain sweet potatoes and pat dry with a paper towel.
On each of eight 12 inch long metal skewers, carefully thread pork, sweet potatoes and zucchini, leaving 1/4-inch space between each piece.
Grill kabobs over medium heat 8 to 10 minutes or until the until pork is cooked., turning once and brushing with the marmalade glaze during the last 3 minutes.
Easy Healthy Coleslaw
This coleslaw is very refreshing with BBQ foods. It keeps well, covered in the refrigerator and should be made several hours in advance to allow the flavors to develop and the cabbage to soften.
- 1/2 cup plain Greek yogurt
- 3 tablespoons cider vinegar
- 3 tablespoons honey
- 1 teaspoon kosher salt
- 1/4 teaspoon black pepper
- 16 ounce bag (about 6¼ cups) of supermarket shredded cabbage and carrot slaw
In a glass measuring cup, combine Greek yogurt, vinegar, honey, salt and pepper and whisk until smooth and thoroughly combined.
Place slaw in a large bowl and pour the dressing mixture over the top. Stir to coat cabbage thoroughly. Cover and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes.
As the seasons change, so do our appetites and nutritional needs. Between the spring and summer, our food habits undergo a gradual metamorphosis. By the time the hottest months have arrived, most of us are naturally inclined to avoid heavy foods and the long cooking preparations required for them. Leggero (light) or restare leggeri (staying light) is the Italian credo in the summer—fresh, light, colorful and simple foods are what everyone craves on hot days.
Italians tend to eat lukewarm or cold food in the summer; tables are often laden with all kinds of variations of salad—from lettuce-based and raw vegetable salads, to insalata di pasta (pasta salads), insalata di riso (rice salads) and insalata di mare or polpo (seafood or octopus salad).
Insalata di mare (Seafood salad) is a delicate preparation usually made with boiled fresh octopus, clams and mussels; the shellfish open when cooked in a covered pan. Sometimes this salad includes shrimp—previously boiled and cleaned—and baby calamari. Crabmeat or other fresh seafood can also be added. The freshness of the fish, the quality of the extra virgin olive oil and the addition of good-quality lemon make all the difference. The dressing for this salad is made simply with two essential ingredients of the Italian cuisine—lemon and olive oil, along with a bit of garlic, parsley, salt and white pepper. Insalata di polpo (octopus salad) is another favorite in Italy, especially along the coasts. It consists of just boiled fresh octopus and tiny slices of celery, seasoned with the same dressing as in the seafood salad. Sometimes it’s served cold or at room temperature, but it can also be served warm with potatoes.
- 2 fennel bulbs with tops
- 1 cup sliced fresh mushrooms, such as shiitake, porcini, or button
- 1/2 teaspoon fennel seed, crushed
- 1 tablespoon olive oil
- 1 cup Arborio rice
- 3 1/4 cups low sodium chicken broth, heated
- 1/4 teaspoon pepper
- 2 cups fresh crabmeat
- 1/2 cup thinly sliced green onions
Trim fennel bulbs, reserving tops. Quarter bulbs lengthwise and slice. Measure 1 cup sliced fennel. Snip enough of the fennel tops to measure 1 tablespoon; set aside.
In a large saucepan heat olive oil and cook the 1 cup fennel, the mushrooms, pepper and fennel seed in until tender. Stir in rice. Cook and stir over medium heat for 2 minutes. Add the 1/4 broth and bring to a boil.
Gradually add the remaining warm chicken broth, one cup at a time, until all the broth is absorbed, about 20 minutes.
Remove saucepan from the heat. Stir in crabmeat and green onions. Let stand, covered, for 5 minutes. Stir in the snipped fennel tops and serve. This dish can also be served at room temperature.
- 1 pound homemade or refrigerated pizza dough
- 4 medium plum tomatoes, sliced
- 8-10 oz cooked shrimp (cut in half lengthwise)
- 3 tablespoons snipped fresh oregano
- 1/2 – 1 teaspoon crushed red pepper
- 1 1/2 cups mozzarella cheese
- Fresh basil leaves
Lightly grease a baking sheet; set aside. Unroll the pizza dough onto a lightly floured surface. Roll into a 16 inch rectangle. Cut dough into eight squares.
Place squares about 1 inch apart on the prepared baking sheet. If desired, fold over about 1/4 inch of the dough on each edge; press with a fork.
Bake in a 425 degrees F oven for 5 minutes or until lightly browned.
Divide tomato slices among the squares. Divide shrimp among the squares. Sprinkle with snipped oregano and crushed red pepper. Sprinkle with cheese.
Bake for 5 to 6 minutes more or until cheese melts. If desired, garnish with basil.
Fettuccine and Scallops in Wine Sauce
- 1 pound fresh scallops
- 6 ounces fettuccine or linguine
- 3 cups sliced fresh mushrooms
- 4 medium carrots, thinly sliced (2 cups)
- 8 green onions, sliced (1 cup)
- 1/2 cup dry white wine
- 1 tablespoon cornstarch
- Juice and zest of half a lemon
- 2 tablespoons butter
- 4 cloves garlic, minced
- 1 teaspoon dried Italian seasoning
- 2 tablespoons snipped fresh parsley
- 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
Cut any large scallops in half.
In a 4 to 5-quart Dutch Oven, bring 3 quarts of water to boiling. Add pasta; return to boiling. Cook for 5 minutes. Add mushrooms, carrots and green onions. Return to boiling.
Cook, uncovered, for 5 to 7 minutes more or until pasta is tender but al dente and vegetables are crisp-tender. Drain pasta and vegetables; keep warm.
Meanwhile, in a small mixing bowl stir together wine, lemon juice and cornstarch; set aside.
In the empty pasta pot melt butter. Add garlic; cook over medium-high heat about 1 minute. Add scallops, wine mixture, lemon zest, Italian seasoning, parsley and pepper to the pan.
Cook and stir over medium heat until thickened and bubbly. Cook and stir for 1 to 2 minutes more or until the scallops turn opaque.
Arrange pasta mixture on a large platter. Spoon the scallop mixture over the pasta mixture. Makes 4 main-dish servings.
Seafood al Cartoccio (Grilled Red Snapper and Shellfish)
- 4 red snapper fillets, 6 ounces each, skin on, scaled and bones removed
- 6 ounces shrimp, peeled and deveined or clams or mussels or a combination of all
- 1/2 cup fresh cherry tomatoes
- 1/2 bunch scallions, thinly sliced
- Salt and pepper to taste
- 4 tablespoons (1/2 stick) unsalted butter, at room temperature
- 1 shallot, minced
- 2 garlic cloves, minced
- 1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce
- 2 tablespoons parsley, chopped
- 2 tablespoons chives, chopped
- 2 basil leaves, chopped
- 2 oregano sprigs, chopped
- Juice of 3 fresh lemons
- Salt and pepper to taste
- Aluminum foil, heavy strength
- Olive oil cooking spray
To make the herb butter
1. Mix all ingredients together in a bowl until butter is blended evenly.
2. Season with salt and pepper. Set aside.
To make the foil packets
1. Cut 4 sheets of heavy-duty aluminum foil, approximately 14 x 18 inches in size.
2. Place sheet of foil shiny side down, narrow edge toward you, on the work surface.
3. Spray the foil with cooking spray. Arrange 1 fish fillet skin side down, 3 to 4 shrimp, a few scattered cherry tomatoes and scallions on each foil sheet. Season with salt and pepper. Using a teaspoon, place several small dollops of the herb butter on the fish and shrimp.
4. Fold the foil over the seafood and bring the top and bottom edges together. Fold the edges over several times to make a tight seal and turn edges up.
1. Preheat grill to highest setting.
2. When ready to cook, place the foil cartoccio(skin side down) in the center of the hot grate. Cover the grill and cook until foil pouches are dramatically puffed, approximately 7 to 9 minutes.
3. Remove the packets directly from the grill to a plate. Using a sharp knife, cut the center of the foil pouch lengthwise and open. Be careful of the hot steam.
Marinated Seafood Salad
- 1/2 pound fish fillets of choice
- Poaching liquid
- 1/4 pound small bay scallops
- 1/4 pound medium shrimp, peeled, deveined
- 1/4 cup sliced celery
- 3/4 cup black olives, halved
- 1/2 cup green onions, chopped
- 2 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
- 1/4 cup lime juice
- 3 tablespoons parsley, chopped
- 3/4 teaspoon Kosher salt
- Pinch cayenne pepper
Gently poach fillets, scallops and shrimp in liquid of your choice: water, broth, white wine or a mixture of the liquids.
When fish and shellfish are firm to the touch and cooked through, remove from poaching liquid and cool.
Cut fillets into 1-inch chunks.
Combine fish, scallops, shrimp, celery, olives and green onions in a large mixing bowl. Season with olive oil, lime juice, parsley, salt and cayenne.
Cover and refrigerate for at least 1 hour before serving.
- Insalata di polpo (Octopus salad) (duespaghetti.com)
- My Seafood Fettuccine With A Garlic Lemon Sauce (lindalouhamel.com)
- Salad Night (jovinacooksitalian.com)
- Caprese Salad Tomato Stacks (mccallumsshamrockpatch.wordpress.com)
Fish has a high level of protein, is easy to digest and is considered an important part of a healthy diet. Some fish have an added bonus because they contain omega-3 fatty acids. These fatty acids – docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) – occur mostly in fatty fish like herring, salmon and mackerel. They are thought to lower blood pressure, to strengthen the immune system and to have positive effects on the development of the nervous system and the cardiovascular system.
Two newly published articles in the March 2013 science journal, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describe how the researchers analyzed the impact of omega-3 fatty acids at a systemic level and they also described their underlying molecular mechanisms for the first time. The teams working at Jena University Hospital in Germany and at the University of Pennsylvania examined the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on the cardiovascular system and were able to show, for the first time, that DHA directly influences blood pressure.
According to the Mayo Clinic, Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease triglycerides, lower blood pressure, reduce blood clotting, boost immunity and improve arthritis symptoms and, in children, may improve learning ability. Eating two servings a week of fish, particularly fish that’s rich in omega-3 fatty acids, appears to reduce the risk of heart disease and sudden cardiac death.
Fatty fish, such as salmon, herring and tuna, contain the most omega-3 fatty acids and, therefore, offer the most benefit, but many types of seafood contain small amounts of omega-3 fatty acids. Most freshwater fish have less omega-3 fatty acids than do fatty saltwater fish. However, some varieties of freshwater trout have relatively high levels of omega-3 fatty acids.
Look for seafood rich in omega-3s, such as:
- Tuna (fresh)
Only buy fish that is refrigerated or properly iced. Fresh fish should smell fresh and mild, not fishy, sour or ammonia-like. Whole fish and fillets should have firm, shiny flesh and bright red gills free from slime. When buying frozen fish, avoid packages placed above the frost line or top of the freezer case. If the package is transparent, look for signs of frost or ice crystals. These could mean the fish has been stored a long time or thawed and refrozen — in which case, choose another package.
Healthy Ways to Cook Fish
Baking fish allows you to get the satisfying crunch of fried fish without all the fat. Just because it’s baked, though, doesn’t mean it’s healthy: Watch the amount of butter, oil, mayonnaise, or cheese called for in the recipe.
It’s easy and delicious to cook fish fillets in packets of parchment paper, a technique called “en papillote”. The fish is cooked by the trapped steam. If you don’t have parchment paper on hand, use aluminum foil to make the packets. The fish needs to bake for only 10 to 15 minutes at 400 degrees F.
When the weather’s not right for grilling, try broiling instead. Broiling is great when you want a fast, simple, hassle-free preparation with delicious results.
It gives fish a nicely browned exterior with the convenience of a temperature-controlled heat source. For easy cleanup, line the broiler pan with a piece of greased foil.
This gentle cooking method is perfect for seafood. Poaching keeps fish moist and won’t mask the delicate flavor of the fish.
To poach fish: use vegetable or chicken stock or a homemade broth of aromatic herbs and spices.
Use a pan big enough to lay each piece of fish down flat.
Pour in enough liquid to just barely cover the fish.
Bring the liquid to a simmer and keep it there.
If you see any bubbles coming up from the bottom of the pan, it’s too hot–the liquid should “shimmer” rather than bubble. The ideal poaching liquid temperature is between 165 and 180 degrees F (74 to 82 degrees C).
Steaming is another gentle cooking method. It produces a mild-tasting fish that is often paired with a flavorful sauce.
Rub the fish with spices, chopped herbs, ginger, garlic and chili peppers to infuse flavor while it cooks.
Use a bamboo steamer or a folding steamer basket with enough room for each piece of fish to lie flat.
Pour about 1½ inches of water into the pan.
Place the steamer over the water, cover the pot, and bring the water to a boil.
Begin checking the fish for doneness after 10 minutes.
When you’re grilling fish, keep a close watch. Fish only takes a few minutes per side to cook. If the fillets are an even thickness, they may not even require turning–they can be cooked through by grilling on one side only.
Brush the fish lightly with oil and spray the grill with nonstick cooking spray.
Place fish near the edge of the grill, away from the hottest part of the fire. (Don’t try to lift up the fish right away; it will be stuck to the grill).
Turn the fish over when you see light grill marks forming.
Fish should be cooked to an internal temperature of 145 degrees F. If you don’t have a food thermometer, you can determine whether fish is properly cooked by slipping the point of a sharp knife into the flesh and pulling it aside. The flesh should be opaque and separate easily.
White Wine and Garlic Steamed Clams
This dish makes a great appetizer.
- 3 pounds manila or littleneck clams
- 1 tablespoon olive oil
- 2 tablespoons unsalted butter
- 1 tablespoon minced garlic
- 1 cup thinly sliced shallots
- 1½ cups dry white wine
- 2 tablespoons finely chopped fresh Italian parsley leaves
- Freshly ground black pepper
- 8 large slices sourdough or country bread, each about ½-inch thick
Scrub the clams and rinse them in four rounds of cold water to remove any sand and grit.
Heat a 12-inch skillet with a cover over medium-high heat and add the olive oil. Add the garlic and shallots and sauté until fragrant and tender, about 1 minute.
Add the wine and cook for about 1 minute more. Add the clams and cook covered until the clams open wide, 5 to 10 minutes, stirring every few minutes.
Add the 2 tablespoons butter, the parsley and season with pepper. Toast the bread on a stovetop grill or in the broiler about 1 minute, turning once.
Discard any unopened clams and serve right away in bowls with the bread and pan juices.
Shrimp with Oregano and Lemon
This is another great appetizer. You can turn it into a main dish by serving the shrimp and sauce over rice or pasta.
The sauce is also delicious spooned over grilled swordfish or any other meaty fish.
- 1/2 cup salted capers—rinsed, soaked for 1 hour and drained
- 1/2 cup fresh oregano
- 1 garlic clove, minced
- 3/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil
- 1 teaspoon finely grated lemon zest
- 3 tablespoons freshly squeezed lemon juice
- Salt and freshly ground pepper
- 2 1/2 pounds large shrimp, shelled and deveined
On a cutting board, finely chop the drained capers with the oregano and garlic. Transfer the mixture to a bowl and stir in 1/2 cup plus 2 tablespoons of the olive oil, along with the lemon zest and lemon juice. Season the sauce with pepper.
Heat a stove top grill.
In a large bowl, toss the shrimp with the remaining 2 tablespoons of olive oil and season lightly with salt and pepper.
Grill shrimp, turning once, until the shrimp show grill marks and are cooked through, about 3 minutes per side. Remove the shrimp to a platter.
Spoon some the sauce on top and serve. Pass the remaining sauce with the shrimp platter.
MAKE AHEAD The sauce can be refrigerated overnight. Bring it to room temperature before serving. Serve with crusty bread.
Red Snapper Livornese
Serve with rice or couscous and a salad or steamed broccoli.
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- 1 small onion, diced
- 2 cloves garlic, minced
- 1 cup homemade or store-bought marinara sauce
- 1 cup dry white wine
- 2 tablespoons capers, chopped
- 1/2 cup sliced black olives, drained
- 1/4 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes
- 1 tablespoon chopped fresh parsley
- 1 pound red snapper fillets
Preheat oven to 400 degrees F (200 degrees C).
In a medium saucepan, heat olive oil and saute onion until tender, about 5 minutes. Add garlic and saute for 1 minute. Stir in marinara sauce, wine, capers, black olives, red pepper flakes and parsley. Bring to a boil and simmer for 10 minutes.
Spread 1/2 cup of the sauce in an 11 x 7 inch baking dish and arrange the snapper fillets in a single layer in the dish. Pour the remaining sauce over all.
Bake for 15 minutes for 1/2 inch thick fillets or 30 minutes for 1 inch thick fillets. Baste once with the sauce while baking. Snapper is done when it flakes easily with a fork.
1 ¼ pounds center-cut salmon fillet, skinned and cut lengthwise into 4 strips
- 1/2 cup plain panko crumbs
- 1/4 cup chopped herbs (basil, parsley, oregano)
- 1 garlic, minced
- 1 small shallot, chopped
- 1/4 teaspoon each salt & pepper
- 1 tablespoon truffle oil
- 2 tablespoons lemon juice
- 1 tablespoon olive oil
Preheat the oven to 400°F. Coat a 9-by-13-inch baking dish with cooking spray.
Mix the stuffing ingredients together in a medium bowl. Working with one piece of salmon at a time, spread about 3 tablespoons of the breadcrumb mixture over the salmon.
Starting at one end, roll the salmon up tightly, tucking in any loose filling as you go. Insert a toothpick through the end to keep the rolls from unrolling.
Place in the prepared dish and repeat with the remaining salmon strips.
Bake the rolls until just cooked through, 15 to 20 minutes. Remove the toothpicks before serving.
Italian Style Paella
Fregola, the pearl-sized pasta that is similar to couscous, makes an excellent substitute for rice in this paella-style dish; it soaks up a lot of the cooking liquid from the dish and still stays chewy.
- Large pinch of saffron threads
- 6 ½ cups warm water
- 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
- 1 medium onion, finely chopped
- 3 large garlic cloves, thinly sliced
- 1 pound fregola (2 1/4 cups)
- 1/2 pound Italian sausage, thinly sliced
- 1 cup canned diced tomatoes
- 1 cup dry white wine
- Salt and freshly ground black pepper
- 2 pounds large shrimp, shelled and deveined
- 2 pounds red snapper, cod or monkfish, cut into 2-inch pieces
- 1 pound mussels, scrubbed and debearded
- 2 tablespoons chopped flat-leaf parsley
In a small bowl, crumble the saffron in 1/2 cup of the warm water and let stand for 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, heat the olive oil in a very large, deep sauté pan. Add the onion and garlic and cook over high heat, stirring, until lightly browned, 2 minutes. Add the fregola and sausage and cook, stirring, until the sausage starts to brown, about 2 minutes. Add the tomatoes, white wine, saffron and its soaking liquid and the remaining 6 cups of warm water to the sauté pan and bring to a boil.
Stir in 1 1/2 teaspoons of salt and 1/2 teaspoon of black pepper, cover and cook over low heat until the fregola is very chewy and soupy, about 10 minutes.
Season the shrimp and red snapper with salt and pepper and add them to the pan along with the mussels, nestling them into the fregola. Bring to a boil. Cover the pan and cook over low heat until the fregola is al dente, the fish is just cooked through and the mussels have opened, about 12 minutes longer.
Remove the pan from the heat and let the paella stand for 5 minutes; the fregola will absorb a bit more of the liquid, but the dish should still be brothy. Discard any mussels that do not open. Sprinkle the fregola with the chopped parsley and serve.