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Category Archives: Brown Gravy

German Food in the United States

Where most German Americans live.

By most accounts, approximately one-fourth of the American population is of German descent. At one time, German restaurants were found in most major cities; today they are hard to find even in traditionally German cities like Cincinnati, St. Louis and Milwaukee. Nevertheless, both the hamburger and the frankfurter, sausages and cured meats of many varieties, egg noodles and countless other American dishes have German origins. Among popular American foods, sauerbraten, a sweet and sour pot roast, retains its German name as do sauerkraut and the sausages knackwurst (often called knockwurst), leberwurst (slightly changed to liverwurst) and the popular bratwurst. Americans are comfortable using these terms whether or not they are of German background.

German immigrants photographed at Ellis Island in 1931. (German Federal Archives)

German language names have not always been retained over the generations: breaded veal or pork cutlets are no longer called Wiener Schnitzel; the Rouladen is now better known as a “roll up;” the Knödel is a dumpling; Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte is better known as Black Forest chocolate cake; Berliner Pfannkuchen are now just a type of doughnut; Kartoffelsalat became German potato salad (the kind served warm, made with vinegar). The German language was alive and well in the United States until an anti-German reaction set in during the First World War; menu names changed (sauerkraut was referred to as “Liberty Cabbage” for a time), but the food kept its appeal.

Helga’s German Restaurant & Deli in Colorado

In 1931, Irma von Starkloff Rombauer put out her first edition of The Joy Of Cooking which is still one of the most influential cookbooks in the country.. Rombauer’s choice of dishes also reflected a strong bias toward the southern end of the German-speaking regions: Austria and Bavaria. The American connection of German food with Bavaria may also have to do with the fact that U.S. soldiers occupied the area immediately after the Second World War. German restaurants in the United States tend toward heavy Bavarian cuisine and decorations like cuckoo clocks. Munich’s famous Oktoberfest celebration is mirrored hundreds of times over by mini-Oktoberfest promotions in American restaurants and communities.

In the Amish and Mennonite communities, Pennsylvania Dutch cuisine (the people are actually of German descent) keeps alive food traditions, and many food names, that reflect the cooking of the Rhineland Palatinate and nearby regions of several centuries ago.

Lager beer, the predominant form of beer consumed today in the United States (and the world) was brought to the country by German immigrants and popularized among the general public by beer companies like Schlitz, Pabst, Stroh, and Busch The Beck’s brand, from the north German port city of Bremen, is the most popular imported German beer, accounting for a full 60% of the German beer sold in the United States. Its sister brand, St. Pauli Girl, has also many American fans.

German Beef Rouladen

Beef Rouladen are called Rindsrouladen or Rinderrouladen in Germany.

Ingredients

One 2 lb round steak or the equivalent of round steak cutlets
Salt and pepper
Paprika
8 teaspoons Dijon mustard
4 slices bacon, cut in half
1/2 cup onion, finely diced
8 slices sweet pickles, cut in half
2 tablespoons olive oil

For the gravy:
2 cups beef broth
2 tablespoons red wine
1 tablespoon tomato paste
1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
Pinch paprika
Salt and pepper to taste

To thicken the gravy:
2 tablespoons cornstarch
2 tablespoons cold water

For garnish:
Chopped fresh parsley

Directions

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.

Cut the steak lengthwise into four equal pieces and pound the beef slices until they are 1/4 inch thin and about 4 inches wide by 12 inches long. Cut each steak in half (4×6). Sprinkle with salt, pepper, and paprika. Spread each piece of beef with 1 teaspoon mustard.. Scatter each with diced onion, dividing evenly between the 8 pieces. Place half a strip of bacon on each piece of beef. Place two pickle pieces down the center of each piece of beef. Take the end closest to you and fold it up and over the pickles. Continue rolling by lifting and rolling until it is completely rolled. {lace a skewer and secure the end of the roll to the main part of the roll, so it doesn’t unroll. Roll up the remaining beef pieces similarly.

Stir together the gravy ingredients in a medium bowl and set aside.
In a Dutch oven or large, heavy-bottomed, ovenproof dish with a lid, heat olive oil over medium-high heat. Add the beef rolls to the pan, skewer/seam side down. Sear for a few minutes until lightly browned, then flip over and sear the other side. Place the rolls on their sides if necessary to sear the entire outside of each of the rolls.

Once the beef rolls are browned, add the prepared gravy mixture to the pan. Bring liquid to a boil over medium-high heat, then cover the pot and place in the preheated oven. Cook, covered in the oven until tender, about 2 hours (depending on the size of the rolls), turning them over a couple of times during the cooking period.

Remove the pot from the oven and use tongs to remove the beef rolls to a plate. Carefully remove the skewers from the rolls and discard, then cover the plate loosely with foil while making the gravy.
Place the pot on the stovetop over medium-high heat. Combine cornstarch and cold water in a small bowl and add to the liquid in the pot. Bring mixture to a boil, stirring, until thickened. Adjust seasoning to taste.

Garnish the beef rolls with chopped parsley.
Serve with the gravy, braised red cabbage, and mashed rutabaga.

German Braised Red Cabbage

Ingredients:

2 tablespoons bacon fat (or butter)
Half a red onion, diced
Half a large head red cabbage, shredded
Salt and pepper
1 tablespoon honey
1 tablespoon cider vinegar

Directions

In a large deep skillet, sauté onion in the bacon fat.
Add the red cabbage. Continue to sauté for several minutes, stirring. When the cabbage has softened, add a 1/2 cup of water, 1/2 teaspoon salt, 1/4 teaspoon freshly ground pepper and the honey. Stir.

Bring to a simmer, cover and cook for about 30 – 45 minutes or until the cabbage is tender. Add water as necessary to keep the cabbage from sticking to the pan and stir occasionally during simmering.

Add the vinegar. Stir and heat for a few minutes before serving.
This goes really well with almost any German meat recipe. It is traditional with rouladen or schnitzel.

Mashed Rutabaga with Sour Cream

Ingredients

One 1 ½-2 pound rutabaga, peeled and cut into small chunks
Salt and black pepper
2 teaspoons butter
1/4 cup full-fat sour cream
1 tablespoon chopped fresh chives

Directions

Cover the rutabaga with about 1 inch of cold water in a large saucepot and bring to a boil.

Add a generous pinch of salt and boil until tender, about 30-40 minutes. Drain and dry on paper towels.
Return the rutabagas to the pot.

Place the heat on low and let the rutabaga steam for a minute or two. Mash with a potato masher.

Add the butter, sour cream, and salt and pepper to taste. Just before serving, mix in the chopped chives.

 

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Have lots of leftovers from Thanksgiving? Here is a delicious recipe to use some of the leftovers in a new way. For the topping, I use a mixture of potatoes and cauliflower to reduce the number of carbs in the dish. If you are not a fan of cauliflower use all potatoes. Don’t forget the leftover cranberry sauce to add as a side.

Filling Ingredients

4 cups cubed leftover turkey
1 medium onion, diced
1 garlic clove, minced
1 celery stalk, diced
1 carrot, finely diced
Half a green bell pepper, diced
1 cup leftover green beans, diced
2 cups leftover turkey gravy

Topping

2 cups leftover mashed potatoes
2 cups leftover mashed cauliflower
1 tablespoon melted butter.
½ cup shredded cheddar cheese

Directions

Preheat the oven to 350°F. Choose either an 8×8-inch or a 9×14-inch oven-proof pan, depending on how much food you have. Oval gratin dishes or a casserole dish also work well, as do individual baking dishes. Butter the dish well.

To reheat the filling before putting the casserole in the oven.

Combine the filling ingredients in the baking dish, cover with plastic wrap and heat in the microwave until warm (not hot), about 4 minutes on high.
If you don’t wish to use the microwave, reheat the mixture in a saucepan and pour into the baking dish.

To make the topping:

Thoroughly combine the mashed potatoes and cauliflower. Mix in the melted butter and cheddar cheese. Spread the topping over the filling in the baking dish, spreading it to the edges of the dish. Place the baking dish on a foil covered cookie sheet. The filling may bubble over.

Bake, uncovered, for about 45 minutes. You will know it is done when the pie filling is bubbling hot and the topping turns golden brown. Let rest for 5 minutes before serving.


Beef Pot Roast

Ingredients

3 lb chuck beef roast
1 teaspoon sea salt
½ teaspoon black pepper
1 teaspoon smoked paprika
½ teaspoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon dried thyme
½ teaspoon onion powder
2 tablespoons olive oil
2 cups beef broth

1 large sweet onion, sliced
3 cloves garlic, minced
6 medium carrots, peeled and cut in half
1 cup sliced mushrooms
1 tablespoon arrowroot powder or cornstarch
1 tablespoon cold water

Directions

In a small bowl combine the sea salt, black pepper, paprika, garlic powder, thyme, and onion powder. Mix together. Rub seasoning mixture all over the roast.

Heat a large Dutch Oven over high and add the oil. Sear the roast on both sides until browned.

Pour the beef broth over the roast. Sprinkle minced garlic over the top and add the onions. Bring to a boil, cover, and lower heat to low.

Cook for 60 minutes, turn the roast over and add the carrots and mushrooms. Cover and cook for 2-3 hours more or until the meat is falling apart tender.

Remove the carrots and roast from the pot and place on a serving platter. Cover with foil and let rest while you thicken the gravy.

In a small bowl combine: arrowroot powder and cold water. Stir until mixed.

Bring the sauce in the pot to a boil and pour in the arrowroot powder mixture. Boil and stir until the sauce thickens. Turn down the heat to very low.

Slice the roast and serve with the carrots and hot gravy.

Swiss Chard and Mashed Rutabaga

You may use two Yukon gold or one large baking potato instead of the rutabaga in this recipe.

For the Swiss Chard

2 cloves of garlic, minced
1/2 medium onion finely chopped
2 large bunches of Swiss chard, washed in several changes of water
1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil
1 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
Salt to taste

For the rutabaga

1 medium rutabaga
Salt
1 clove garlic, peeled
2 cups low sodium chicken broth
1 tablespoon olive oil

Directions for the Swiss Chard

Drain the washed chard very well. With a knife, remove the chard stems that run up the middle of each leaf. Cut the leaves into smaller pieces.

Heat the oil over medium heat in a large skillet. Add the onion, garlic, and black pepper.

Heat for 3-5 minutes, stirring occasionally until the onions are tender.

Add the chard leaves and cook, covered, for 5 minutes until the leaves are wilted and brightly colored. Add a tablespoon of water to the pan if it seems like the leaves are getting too dry.

Add salt to taste and set aside.

Directions for the Rutabaga

Peel the rutabaga. Cut into ½ inch diced pieces. Place the rutabaga in a medium saucepan with a cover.

Add the chicken broth, garlic, and a little salt to taste. Bring to a boil and lower the heat to medium. Cover the pan and cook until very soft, about 45 minutes.

Drain the rutabaga over a bowl and reserve the broth for soup. Return the cooked rutabaga to pan and mash with a potato masher. Add the olive oil.

To finish the dish

Stir the mashed rutabaga or potato into the Swiss chard. Heat the mixture over low heat, cover the pan and let the mixture simmer for about 30 minutes until the chard is very tender. Serve with the pot roast.


Here are a few more popular recipes from the past. The Flounder recipe is one we like a lot.

Salisbury Steak 

4 Servings

Ingredients

Burger Steak

1 1/4 pounds lean ground beef
2 teaspoons Worcestershire sauce
2 teaspoons Montreal Steak Seasoning
1/4 cup breadcrumbs
1/4 cup heavy cream
1 tablespoon fresh minced parsley
2 teaspoons oil
Salt and pepper

Gravy

1 tablespoon unsalted butter
8 ounces white button mushrooms, sliced
1 clove garlic, minced
1 small onion, sliced thin
2 cups beef stock
1 tablespoon all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
1 sprig fresh thyme
Salt and freshly ground black pepper

Directions

Place the ground beef in a medium bowl, breaking it up as you do.

Sprinkle the Worcestershire sauce, steak seasoning and parsley over the beef. Add the breadcrumbs and cream. Mix gently.

Divide the seasoned ground beef into 4 even portions and form into patties.

Season the outside with salt and a good amount of coarse black pepper. (Lots of pepper gives the hamburger steak great flavor.)

Place a large skillet or saute pan over medium high heat. When hot, add the 2 teaspoons of oil and swirl to coat the pan.

Add the burger steaks and cook for approximately 3 minutes per side. Remove the burger steaks from the pan to a plate and cover loosely with foil.

Turn the heat down to medium.

Season mushrooms with salt and pepper, to taste. Saute the mushrooms in the same pan as the meat, until brown, about 5 minutes.

Add butter, the onion, thyme and garlic. Cook until vegetables are soft, about 5 minutes. Whisk in the flour.

Add broth, slide meat back into sauce, cover and simmer until tender, about 30 minutes.

Flounder Almondine

Ingredients

5 tablespoons butter
1 tablespoon olive oil
4 flounder or sole fillets (about 1 pound)
All purpose flour
2 eggs beaten to blend
1/4 cup slivered almonds toasted
1/4 cup dry white wine
2 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
Lemon wedges

Directions

Melt 4 tablespoons butter with the olive oil in large skillet over medium high heat. Dip fillets in flour then in beaten eggs.

Add the fillets to the skillet and cook until browned and just cooked through 2 to 3 minutes per side. Transfer to serving platter, keep warm.

Melt the remaining 1 tablespoon of butter in the same skillet. Add the almonds and cook until heated through about 1 minute.

Add wine and lemon juice and simmer until thickened, stirring constantly. Pour the sauce over the fish. Garnish with lemon wedges and serve.

Jelly Roll Cake

Servings 10

Ingredients

3 eggs
1 cup granulated sugar
⅓ cup water
1 teaspoon vanilla
3/4 cup all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
¼ teaspoon salt
Powdered sugar
About 2/3 cup of lemon curd or your favorite jelly

Directions

Heat the oven to 375°F. Line 15 x 10 x 1 inch pan with parchment paper. Coat the paper and pan sides lightly with cooking spray.

In a medium bowl, beat eggs with an electric mixer on high-speed about 5 minutes or until very thick and lemon colored. Gradually beat in the granulated sugar.

Beat in water and vanilla on low-speed. Gradually add flour, baking powder and salt, beating just until the batter is smooth.

Pour the cake batter into the prepared pan, spreading to the corners.

Bake 12 to 15 minutes or until a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean.

Immediately loosen cake from the sides of pan and turn upside down onto a kitchen towel generously sprinkled with powdered sugar. Carefully remove the paper.

Trim off stiff edges of the cake if necessary. While the cake ¡s hot, carefully roll the cake and towel from the narrow end into a cylinder.

Cool on a cooling rack for at least 30 minutes.

Unroll the cake and remove the towel. Beat jelly slightly with a fork to soften and spread over the cake. Roll up the cake.

Sprinkle with powdered sugar. Cut into ½ inch slices to serve.

Easy Lemon Curd

If you do not have access to Meyer Lemons, you can use regular lemons. Because Meyer Lemons are larger, you will need more regular lemons to get 1 cup and more sugar because regular lemons are less sweet than Meyer.

Ingredients

1 cup Meyer Lemon juice (2 large)
6 large organic eggs, beaten
1 cup sugar
2 sticks (16 tablespoons) salted butter softened
1/4 teaspoon vanilla extra

Directions

Put all the ingredients in a heavy saucepan. Turn the heat to medium and continuously whisk the mixture until it begins to thicken – it only takes a few minutes.

Turn the heat down to medium-low and continue whisking. The lemon curd will thicken – all at once.

Remove the pot from the heat and continue to stir with the whisk for one minute more. Pour into a clean container and let cool to room temperature.

Store in the fridge in an airtight container.

Jello molds from the 50’s and 60’s.

 


You may have family or friends visiting for the holidays who follow special diets. If you plan ahead and with just a few ingredients changes, many of the Thanksgiving recipes can be adapted to meet the needs of vegan, vegetarian, gluten-free and low carb diets. Have a wonderful Thanksgiving, Everyone.

Vegan Gravy (or Regular or Gluten-Free)

Kitchen Bouquet is a browning sauce that you can find in the grocery store next to the A1 and Worcestershire Sauce. It helps to add a brown color to the gravy. There are several brands of browning sauce available, but I use this one. Since 2006 this vegan sauce has been gluten-free. It is made from a base of carrots, cabbage, turnips, parsnips, celery and onion.

You can use this same recipe for everyone by make a second batch and using chicken broth in the second batch for regular diets. To make this gravy Gluten-Free, use gluten-free cornstarch to thicken the gravy. Gluten-free gravy also works for low carb dieters.

Ingredients

1 tablespoon olive oil
1 shallot, minced
1 small garlic clove, minced
4 ounces mushrooms, chopped
1 cup low sodium vegetable stock
2 heaping tablespoons unbleached all-purpose flour
1/4 teaspoon each salt, pepper and dried thyme
1/4 teaspoon Kitchen Bouquet, optional

Directions

Warm the oil in a saucepan over medium heat. Add the shallot, garlic and mushrooms and cook for 10 minutes, stirring frequently.

Cook until the mushrooms are soft and brown, and most of their liquid is evaporated.

Stir in the flour with a whisk and reduce heat to low. Cook for another minute or two.

Slowly add the vegetable broth while whisking to reduce clumps. Then add in the salt, pepper and thyme and whisk again.

Stir in the Kitchen Bouquet, if using.

Reduce the heat to a simmer and continue to stir until it reaches the desired thickness, about 5-10 minutes.

Thanksgiving Sausage Stuffing

To make this recipe gluten-free use cornbread instead of Italian bread in the recipe. The gluten-free cornbread recipe is below.

Ingredients

8 cups Italian bread, cut into ½ inch cubes
2 tablespoons olive oil
1 lb sweet Italian sausage, casings removed
1 large onion, diced
2 large ribs celery, cut into 1/4-inch dice
4 cloves garlic, finely chopped
2 teaspoons fresh thyme
1 tablespoon dried poultry seasoning
3/4 teaspoon kosher salt
1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
1/2 teaspoon crushed red pepper flakes
1 cup chicken broth

Directions

Place the bread cubes into a very large bowl and set aside. Place a large sauté pan over medium heat and add the olive oil and the sausage.

Cook, breaking up the sausage with a wooden spoon or spatula, until light brown, about 5 minutes.

With a slotted spoon, transfer the sausage to the bowl of cubed bread.

In the fat left in the pan, sauté the onions, celery and garlic until the onions are just beginning to brown, 8 to 10 minutes.

Stir in the thyme, sage, salt and peppers, cook 1 minute and, then, add the mixture to the cubed bread.

Add the broth to the bread mixture; stir until well combined.

Place the stuffing in a large baking dish and bake in the oven for the last hour that the turkey cooks.

Gluten-Free Cornbread

This can be made several days ahead.

Ingredients

2 cups (264 g) coarsely ground yellow cornmeal (gluten-free)
1 teaspoon kosher salt
1 teaspoon baking soda
2 teaspoons baking powder
1 large egg at room temperature, beaten
4 tablespoons unsalted butter, melted and cooled
1 1/2 cups buttermilk, at room temperature
4 tablespoons honey

Directions

Preheat the oven to 400°F. Grease an 8-inch square or round pan, and set it aside.

In a large bowl, place the cornmeal, salt, baking soda and baking powder, and whisk to combine well.

In separate bowl, mix the egg, butter, buttermilk and honey, and whisk to combine well.

Create a well in the dry ingredients and pour in the wet ingredients. Mix until just combined.

Pour the mixture into the prepared pan.

Bake for 20-30 minutes or until lightly golden brown on top, golden brown around the edges, and a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean.

Cool completely and cut up into cubes.

Vegan Thanksgiving Stuffing

Ingredients

3 cups sourdough wheat bread (made without dairy or eggs) cut into cubes
4 oz mushrooms, sliced
1/4 cup chopped pecans
2 tablespoons olive oil
1/4 cup chopped fresh sage leaves
1 leek white part only, finely chopped (about 1/2 cup)
1 large rib celery finely chopped
1 clove garlic, minced
1 cup vegetable stock
Chopped fresh parsley leaves
Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper

Directions

Heat oil in a pot over medium-high heat until shimmering.

Add chopped mushrooms and cook, stirring frequently, until all moisture has evaporated, about 8 minutes.

Add sage and continue to cook, stirring, until mushrooms are well browned, about 5 minutes longer.

Add leek, celery, garlic and cook, stirring frequently, until vegetables are softened, about 10 minutes. Add parsley, and chopped pecans.

Add stock to the bread cubes and fold in the cooked vegetables until evenly mixed. Season to taste with salt and pepper.
.
Transfer mixture to a greased baking dish cover tightly with aluminum foil, and bake with the turkey until hot throughout, about 30 minutes.

Remove foil and continue baking until golden brown and crisp on top, about 10 minutes longer.

Vegan Stuffed Squash

Serve this dish instead of turkey for your vegan or vegetarian dinners.

To make this recipe for non-vegans, add a ½ cup of cooked lean ground pork to the stuffing.

Directions for preparing the squash:

Cut a thin slice off from the top & bottom of one acorn squash (just enough to leave a flat edge, so the squash can stand up on both ends).

Cut the squash in half, horizontally, so you have two bowl shapes. Scoop out the membranes and seeds and discard.

Place the squash in a baking dish cut-side up. Brush the inside with the olive oil and sprinkle with salt & pepper.

Roast the squash for about 30 minutes.

Filling

Combine the following:

2 tablespoons minced onion
2 tablespoons diced celery
1/4 cup diced, peeled pear
1/4 cup diced, peeled apple
2 tablespoons fresh cranberries
1 teaspoon chopped fresh sage
1 teaspoon chopped fresh thyme
1/4 cup cooked brown rice

 

 

Place the filling mixture in the partially cooked squash halves. Place the filled squash in the oven and bake 20 minutes.

Easy Vegan or Gluten Free Pumpkin Pie

The pumpkin filling can be used for either pie.

Ingredients

Pat-in-the-Pan Vegan Crust

1 1/2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon sugar
1/4 teaspoon baking powder
1/3 cup vegetable oil
3 tablespoons water

Vegan Pie Filling Directions

Whisk together the flour, salt, sugar and baking powder. Whisk together the oil and water, then pour over the dry ingredients.

Stir with a fork until the dough is evenly moistened. Pat the dough across the bottom of a 9 inch pie pan and up the sides.

A flat-bottomed measuring cup can help make the bottom even. Press the dough up the sides of the pan with your fingers, and flute the top.

Chill in the refrigerator while you make the filling.

Pat-in-the-Pan Gluten-Free Crust

1 1/3 cups gluten-free flour mix
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/3 cup olive oil (or alternative oil)
5 tablespoons cold milk (or cold plant milk)

Gluten-Free Pie Crust Directions

Mix together the flour and salt in a medium-sized bowl.

Blend oil and milk together in a separate bowl.

Add wet ingredients to dry ingredients and combine.

Place dough into a 9 inch pie plate and press the dough firmly onto the bottom and up the sides of the pie plate.

Place the pie crust in the refrigerator while you make the filling.

Pumpkin Pie Filling

2 1/2 cups pumpkin puree
1/4 cup maple syrup
1/3 cup brown sugar
1/2 cup unsweetened plain almond milk
1 tablespoon vegetable oil
2 1/2 tablespoons cornstarch or arrowroot powder
1 1/2 teaspoons pumpkin pie spice (or a mix of ginger, cinnamon, nutmeg & cloves)
1/4 teaspoon sea salt

Filling Directions

Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F.

Add all the pie filling ingredients to a blender and blend until smooth, scraping down sides as needed. Taste and adjust seasonings, if needed.

Pour the filling into the chilled pie crust and bake for about 60 minutes.

The crust should be golden brown and the filling should still be set.

Remove the pie from the oven and let cool completely before loosely covering and transferring to the refrigerator to fully set overnight.

Low-Carb Pumpkin Pie

Ingredients

Crust

2¼ cups almond flour
½ teaspoon salt
4 teaspoons sugar substitute (1:1 with sugar)
3 tablespoons butter, softened
1 large egg at room temperature, beaten

Filling

2 cups pumpkin puree
1/2 cup heavy cream
1/2 cup 1:1 sugar substitute
2 teaspoons vanilla extract
1 tablespoon pumpkin spice
1/2 teaspoon kosher salt
2 large eggs at room temperature, beaten

Directions

Preheat oven at 350 degrees F.

In a medium bowl, mix together all the crust ingredients until a dough forms.

Press the dough into 9-inch pan and bake for 10 minutes.

Whisk together the beaten eggs, pumpkin puree, vanilla, spices and sweetener. Mix well.

Add the heavy cream until fully combined.

Pour into pie crust and bake for 40-50 minutes or until toothpick (or knife) inserted comes out clean. Let cool completely.



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