As immigrants from the different regions of Italy settled throughout the various regions of the United States, many brought with them a distinct regional Italian culinary tradition. Many of these foods and recipes developed into new favorites for the townspeople and later for Americans nationwide.
Italians arriving in New Orleans often went to work first on Louisiana citrus farms or one of the state’s sugar cane plantations. But word got around that Birmingham offered a chance to earn wages in one of its factories. Attracted by the promise of better pay, many Italian immigrants left Louisiana for Birmingham. They were joined by fellow Italian immigrants who came directly from Sicily or other parts of Italy, or who may have spent some time in a northern city before deciding to head south to seek better paying jobs.
By 1910, Birmingham’s Italian population numbered almost 2,000 and was spread out over several neighborhoods. There was Little Italy in Ensley, a working class neighborhood associated with Tennessee Coal and Iron. There was the Italian community of Thomas, where Republic Steel was located. To the west lay another Little Italy, in West Blocton, where Italian immigrants mined coal and the town is known to this day for its Italian Catholic cemetery. Each community was anchored by a Catholic parish, supplying social and spiritual support and operating schools for Italian speaking children. Corner grocery stores, some of which grew into major supermarket chains, supplemented their owners’ income. Fig trees, small family gardens and even livestock kept Italian food traditions alive.
La Storia: Birmingham’s Italian Community exhibition at Vulcan Park and Museum
Vulcan is the world’s largest cast iron statue and is considered one of the most memorable works of civic art in the United States. Both the Vulcan statue and the pedestal it stands upon, display the Italian heritage that is prevalent throughout Vulcan Park and the Birmingham community. Designed by Italian artist, Giuseppe Moretti, and cast from local iron in 1904, Vulcan has overlooked Alabama’s largest city from atop Red Mountain since the 1930s. Vulcan Park and Museum features spectacular views of Birmingham, an interactive history museum and Birmingham’s Italian immigrant story.
Italian Americans had a huge impact on not only Vulcan Park and the Museum, but also on the city itself. La Storia tells the story of Italian immigration to the city of Birmingham from the late 1800s to the mid-20th century. While the exhibit showcases prosperity for Italian immigrants, it also documents the hardships these immigrant families endured as a community and how they relied on faith and family to hold them together.
A traditional dish that is popular in Northern Italy—particularly in Lombardy. Alabama Italian chef/owner, Marco Morosini shares his expertise in cooking this comforting recipe. B-Metro Magazine December 2013
- 3 carrots, chopped
- 2 celery, chopped
- 1/2 onion, chopped
- 4 tablespoons extra virgin olive oil
- 8 Spare ribs
- 8 Italian sausages
- 8 pieces pork rind (optional)
- 1 large head Savoy cabbage, shredded
Place the extra virgin olive oil, carrots, celery and onion in a large pan over low to medium heat. Brown for approximately five minutes. Add and brown the spare ribs. Add the pork rind. After five more minutes add the sausages. Cook for approximately 10 minutes. Add the Savoy cabbage. Stir until all are well mixed. Sprinkle with salt and continue cooking for about 1 hour and 30 minutes. Serve over polenta. Serves eight.
Few people associate the South with Italian immigration to America, assuming immigrants settled only in the urban Northeast. Yet, many communities throughout the United States have a significant proportion of Italian Americans. Immigrants gravitated to places where they could find work, whether it be in the garment industry, coal mines, farms, fisheries, canning factories or lumber mills. In the peak immigration years (1880–1910), the American South attracted its share of Italian immigrants.
The first immigrants to the Delta in the 1880s, were hired to repair levees or as farm laborers on the plantations. Some of these families became peddlers selling goods to farmers. In 1895, some Italians crossed the Mississippi River to work in the Arkansas Delta. They were mostly from central Italy and experienced in farm work.
The late 19th century saw the arrival of larger numbers of Italian immigrants, who left Italy seeking economic opportunities. Some Italians from Sicily settled as families along the Mississippi Gulf Coast in Biloxi, Ocean Springs and Gulfport, preserving close ties with those from their homeland. They worked in the fishing and canning industries. Others were merchants, operating grocery stores, liquor stores and tobacco shops. The seafood (and small shipyard) industry of Biloxi was mainly owned by the family of Andrew H. Longino – Governor of Mississippi from 1900 to 1904, who was the first governor of a southern US State to be of Italian heritage.
Life was very challenging for the immigrants. They found the adjustment to the South’s climate especially difficult; Italian farmers did not have experience with cotton and sugarcane crops and many immigrants died as a result of malaria. While some of the settlers remained in the Delta, bought land and became cotton farmers, others moved to Italian communities in northern Missouri, Alabama and Tennessee.
The Italian Americans were often victims of prejudice, economic exploitation and violence. The Delta states were no exception. Mississippi and Louisiana became a worldwide symbol of Anti-Italianism. In the twentieth century, mainly after World War I , the Italians were slowly accepted and integrated into society. The food and restaurant industry was one of the areas where they gained acceptance and economic success.
Italians developed a distinctive cultural life in the Delta, preserving traditional ways from their Italian ancestry and, yet, adapting to the culture of the American South. Families continued to make wine and cook Italian food with recipes long passed down from their grandmothers.
Italians established restaurants that helped popularize Italian food in the region. Greenwood, in particular, has several restaurants with deep Italian connections. Lusco’s and Giardina’s both trace their ancestry to families from Cefalu in Sicily. Charles and Marie Lusco were first generation Italian immigrants, who established a grocery store in 1921. Local cotton farmers spent time there, playing cards in the back of the store, eating the dishes that Marie prepared and drinking Charles’s homemade wine. Lusco’s emerged from a grocery store into a restaurant because their food became popular. Patrons and customers began requesting the sauces made in the restaurant to take home. As a result, Lusco’s began bottling and marketing the three most requested salad dressings and sauces.
Beef and Spinach Lasagna
Mississippi Farm Families recipe.
- 1 lb. lean ground beef
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- 32 oz (4 cups) homemade spaghetti sauce
- 14 ½ oz can Italian style diced tomatoes, undrained
- 1/4 teaspoon ground red pepper
- 15 oz ricotta cheese
- 10 oz frozen chopped spinach, defrosted and well-drained
- 1/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese
- 1 egg, beaten
- 10 uncooked lasagna noodles
- 1 ½ cup shredded mozzarella cheese
Heat oven to 375 degrees F.
In a large nonstick skillet, brown the ground beef 8 – 10 minutes until no longer pink. Pour off the drippings.
Season with salt. Add tomatoes, spaghetti sauce and red pepper. Stir to combine and set aside.
In a medium bowl, combine ricotta cheese, spinach, Parmesan cheese and egg.
Spread 2 cups beef sauce over the bottom of a 9 x 13 baking dish. Arrange 5 lasagna noodles in single layer completely covering the bottom. Press noodles into sauce.
Spread entire ricotta cheese mixture on top of the noodles. Sprinkle with 1 cup of the mozzarella cheese and top with 2 cups beef sauce.
Arrange remaining noodles in a single layer and press lightly into sauce. Top with remaining beef sauce.
Bake in 375 degree F oven for 45 minutes or until noodles are tender. Sprinkle remaining mozzarella cheese on top. Tent lightly with foil. Let stand 15 minutes before cutting into 12 servings.
Galveston was called the “Ellis Island of the West” as it was the primary point of entry for European immigrants settling in the western United States. By 1910, there were more than 1,000 Italian immigrants living in Galveston. The language barrier and discrimination caused the Italian immigrants to stick together. Most of the southern Italians were fishermen, laborers and farmers, while the northern Italians tended to be businessmen. The northern Italians used their business skills to set up small, family owned shops. At the time, half the grocery stores in Galveston were owned by Italian families, who made up only 2 percent of the population. “There was an Italian grocery store on every street corner,” said Anthony Piperi, 89, who remembers those days well. Piperi said those who did well in business formed benevolent societies to help the new immigrants and the less fortunate get a foothold. “Fifty percent of them owned some kind of small business,” Piperi said. “By the second generation, everybody had a lawyer or doctor in the family.”
The reason the Italian community did so well, he said, was that it put a premium on education. Everybody in the second generation tried to get an education, he said, because their parents knew what it was like to try to make it without one. The emphasis on education allowed those children to have great mobility and freedom — a mixed blessing. “The families spread out,” Piperi said. “A brother would get a job in Houston. Somebody else would get a job in New York.” An American Army captain whose father was an immigrant, said one of the many things about the Italian experience in Galveston was how quickly many of the immigrants succeeded in their new American life.
Joe Grasso from Sicily pioneered the shrimp industry along the Texas Gulf Coast. Arriving in Galveston in 1906, he worked as a fisherman and saved his money to buy a boat. For 15 years he sold shrimp as bait to fishermen and, then in the 1920s, he began freezing shrimp to export to Japan, creating a successful business.
The Galveston Shrimp Company was founded in 1978 by Rosario Cassarino, an immigrant from the Italian island of Sicily. For twenty years he and his wife, Giovanna, unloaded fish and shrimp boats at the historic Pier 19 and sold the catch of the day to Galveston locals and the visiting tourists. In 1994 their son, Nello, took over the daily operation and moved the company to a larger facility that was more accessible to highway transportation. The company began to shift its focus from a retail operation to a wholesale seafood company that now supplies retailers and distributors around the nation.
Chef Maurizio Ferrarese from Texas Eats: The New Lone Star Heritage Cookbook
Cioppino is an Italian-American seafood stew that originated in San Francisco. This Gulf version using brown shrimp, redfish and blue crab make it a Texas-Italian Cioppino.
- 4 pounds uncooked heads-on shrimp
- One 4 pound whole redfish
- 8 live crabs
- 3 tablespoons olive oil
- 1 onion, chopped
- 3 ribs celery, chopped
- 2 teaspoons salt
- 1 cup chopped green onions
- 4 large garlic cloves, finely chopped
- 1 jalapeño, minced
- Small can (6 oz) tomato paste
- 1 (28-ounce) can diced tomatoes, undrained
- 2 cups white wine
- 3 bay leaves
Shell the shrimp and filet the fish. Make a stock with the fish bones and head and the shrimp shells and heads. When the stock boils, add the crabs and cook until done, about ten minutes. Remove the crabs and allow to cool. Reserve the crab bodies and claws and return the rest of the crab including the innards to the stockpot. Simmer the stock for a total of 30 minutes adding water as needed, then turn off the heat. You should have 8 cups of stock.
Heat the oil in a soup pot over medium heat. Add the onion, celery and salt and saute until the onion is translucent, about 10 minutes. Add the green onion, garlic and jalapeño; saute 2 minutes. Stir in the tomato paste. Add tomatoes, wine and bay leaf.
Strain the stock and pour the strained liquid into the soup pot. Cover and bring to a simmer. Reduce the heat to medium-low. Cover and simmer until the flavors blend, about 30 minutes.
Cut the fish into 2 inch chunks. Add the shrimp, reserved crab and fish to the soup. Simmer gently until the fish and shrimp are just cooked through. Season the soup, to taste, with more salt and some hot pepper sauce, if desired.
Serve with crusty bread and nutcrackers for the crab claws.
Italians flocked to New Orleans in the late 1800s because of the growing business of importing Mediterranean citrus into the port city. Many of these immigrants worked on the docks in the fruit district and, eventually, these workers opened grocery stores and restaurants around the city. Italians made up about 90 percent of the immigrants in New Orleans at the time and dominated the grocery industry. Italian contributions to the cuisine include “red gravy”, a red sauce thickened with roux that is used in everything from Creole Daube to grillades, stuffed artichokes and peppers. Today, the Italian influence in shaping Creole cuisine is unmistakable – Southern Italian and Sicilian ingredients fundamentally transformed the cuisine.
Joseph Maselli was a catalyst for countless American Italian activities in Louisiana, founding the first state-wide organization of American Italians that later became the Italian American Federation of the Southeast, an umbrella organization with over 9,000 members from the states of Louisiana, Mississippi and Texas. Ten years later, he founded the Italian American Renaissance Foundation Museum and Research Library, the first of its kind in the South, which contains more than 400 oral tape histories, vertical files on 25,000 individuals and 5,500 American Italian books. Today, it has been renamed the American Italian Cultural Center. To honor Louisiana Italian Americans who have excelled in athletics, he founded the Louisiana Italian American Sports Hall of Fame. Maselli focused his energy on civic endeavors and, in particular, on preserving the Italian culture and heritage and fighting against prejudice on behalf of all nationalities. Mr. Maselli was the publisher of the Italian American Digest which he founded to preserve immigrant values of family tradition, hard work and education.
Parmesan Crusted Breast of Chicken
Vincent’s Italian Cuisine/New Orleans
Vincent’s Italian Cuisine was founded in 1989 by native New Orleanian, Vincent Catalanotto. From a large, close Sicilian family, Vincent grew up eating wonderful food prepared by his parents who were both great cooks. The “little Italian place on the side street” quickly became Metairie’s hidden jewel. Vincent developed a menu that showcased the finest and freshest ingredients available. In fact, there are no walk-in coolers or freezers at Vincent’s – produce, seafood, meats and cheeses are delivered fresh daily. It wasn’t long before Vincent had more customers than chairs. A second location was added in 1997 on St. Charles Avenue near the Riverbend.
- 2 boxes (10 oz) frozen chopped spinach, defrosted, squeezed dry
- 2 cups heavy cream
- 2 tablespoons Sambuca Liqueur
- 1 cup Parmesan Cheese
Mix ingredients together and set aside.
- 6 Chicken Breast Halves – boneless, skinless, pounded thin
- 4 eggs, beaten
- 4 cups Parmesan Cheese
- 2 cups All Purpose Flour
- 1 cup Vegetable Oil
Dredge chicken in flour, dip in beaten eggs, then in parmesan cheese, pressing cheese into chicken until well coated.
Heat oil in a large sauté pan; add chicken and sauté until golden brown.
While cooking chicken, heat creamed spinach in a small saucepan or in the microwave.
Spread approximately 3 tablespoons of heated spinach on each dinner plate, then top with a cooked chicken breast.
Finish the dish with lemon butter sauce (as follows).
LEMON BUTTER SAUCE
- Juice of 2 small or 1 Large Lemon
- 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
- 1 cup dry White Wine
- 1 stick butter, cut up
- 2 tablespoons chopped Green Onions (tops only)
Mix lemon juice, wine and Worcestershire in a small saucepan and cook until reduced.
Add butter and green onions, stirring until butter is melted.
Drizzle over chicken and serve.
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April 20, 2015 at 7:15 am
Now the Parmesan Crusted Breast of Chicken looks and sounds quite delish!
April 20, 2015 at 7:17 am
Agree – they were made for each other.
Marisa Franca @ All Our Way
April 20, 2015 at 7:25 am
Excellent post — very informative. You have done a lot of research and it has provided us a wealth of facts. Thank you. I love the recipes — especially the cioppino – the American version of cioppin. (I’m not sure of that spelling but the original recipe was for an Italian fish stew) It’s a shame that Italians were discriminated against but they weren’t the only ones, were they? We sure gave the world a lot of good recipes 🙂 Grazie for sharing.
April 20, 2015 at 7:28 am
Thank you so much Marisa. I really appreciate your comments. It is amazing to see how these Italian dishes evolved and made use of what was available locally. True Italian cooking.
April 20, 2015 at 7:29 am
My great-grandmother sold pizzas to the fisherman on the piers in Galveston. The Macaluso family was from the southern part of Sicily and settled in the Galveston area. I still have lots of family in that area.
April 20, 2015 at 7:36 am
Thank you so much for sharing information about your heritage. I love hearing from readers who can relate to the stories I tell about how our relatives settled into American life.
Our Growing Paynes
April 20, 2015 at 7:49 am
Ooh the lemon sauce looks yummy. 🙂
April 20, 2015 at 7:50 am
Oh it is – thanks Virginia.
April 20, 2015 at 12:31 pm
What an interesting post! And filled with great recipes besides!! Thank you for this post, Jovina.
April 20, 2015 at 2:13 pm
Thank you for being a reader.
April 20, 2015 at 12:35 pm
Another fabulous post Jovina!
April 20, 2015 at 2:13 pm
Annamaria @ Bakewell Junction
April 22, 2015 at 9:06 pm
The Cassoeula looks similar to Frattacc e Minestra that my family makes. Love this series.
April 23, 2015 at 7:06 am
Thanks so much Annamaria. The dish is probably similar because our Italian relatives brought the basic recipes with them from Italy but adapted them in the US to what they could find at the market.
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