Campania faces the Tyrrhenian Sea and includes one of the finest coastlines in Italy. Naples is the regional capital. Other important cities are Caserta, Benevento, Salerno and Avellino. The region has a population of around 5.8 million people, making it the second-most-populous region in Italy. Campania is rich in culture, music, architecture, and archaeological sites such as Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Vesuvius.
Campania, mainly, produces fruit and vegetables but has also expanded its production of flowers grown in greenhouses to become one of the leading producers in Italy. Campania produces over 50% of Italy’s nuts and is also a leader in the production of tomatoes. Animal breeding is widespread and the milk produced is used to make dairy products, such as mozzarella cheese. Olive and fruit trees cover a good portion of the agricultural land and wine production has increased, as well as, the quality of the wine.
The region has a dense network of roads and motorways, a system of maritime connections, and an airport (Naples Airport), which connects the region to the rest of the country. The port connects the region with the entire Mediterranean basin and brings tourists to the archaeological sites, the cities, the beautiful coastal areas, and the well-known islands.
Campania is home to several national clubs: football. water polo, volleyball, basketball, and tennis. The fencing school in Naples is the oldest in the country and the only school in Italy in which a swordsman can acquire the title, “master of swords”, which allows a graduate to teach the art of fencing. The “Circolo Savoia” and “Canottieri Napoli” sailing clubs are among the oldest in Italy and are famous for their regattas. The region is also home to water polo teams. Many sailors from Naples and Campania participate as crew in America’s Cup sailing competition.
Campanian cuisine varies within the region. While Neapolitan dishes center on seafood, Casertan and Aversan dishes rely more on fresh vegetables and cheeses. The cuisine from Sorrento combines the culinary traditions from both Naples and Salerno.
Pizza was conceived in Naples. Historical and original pizzas from Naples are pizza fritta (fried pizza); calzone (literally “trouser leg”), which is pizza stuffed with ricotta cheese; pizza marinara, with just olive oil, tomato sauce, and garlic and pizza Margherita, with olive oil, tomato sauce, mozzarella cheese, and basil leaves. Neapolitans were among the first Europeans to use tomatoes not only as an ornamental plant but also as a food ingredient.
The cheeses of Campania consist of Mozzarella di Bufala (buffalo mozzarella) a mozzarella made from buffalo milk, fiordilatte (“flower of milk”) a mozzarella made from cow’s milk, ricotta from sheep or buffalo milk, provolone made from cow milk, and caciotta made from goat milk. Buffalo are bred in Salerno and Caserta.
Spaghetti Alla Puttanesca, a spicy pasta dish made with a sauce of tomatoes, olives, anchovies, and capers is a dish that originated in Campania. Ravioli di ricotta di Pecora also called “ravioli” or “slim ravioli”, is an ancient traditional specialty of Campania: handmade ravioli filled with fresh sheep ricotta.
Campania is home to seafood-based dishes, such as “Insalata di mare” (seafood salad), “Zuppa di polpo” (octopus soup), and “Zuppa di cozze” (mussel soup), that are very popular. Other regional seafood dishes include “frittelle di mare” (fritters with seaweed), made with edible algae, “triglie al cartoccio” (red mullet), and “Alici marinate” (fresh anchovies in olive oil). The island of Ischia is famous for its fish dishes, as well as, for a cooked rabbit.
Campania is also home to the lemons of Sorrento. Rapini (or broccoli rabe), known locally as friarielli, are often used in regional cooking.
Several different cakes and pies are made in Campania. Pastiera pie is made during Easter. Casatiello and Torano are Easter bread made by adding oil and various types of cheese to the bread dough and garnishing them with slices of salami. Babà cake is a Neapolitan delicacy, best served with rum or limoncello (a liqueur invented in the Sorrento peninsula). Sfogliatella is another cake from the Amalfi Coast, as is zeppole, traditionally eaten on Saint Joseph’s day. Struffoli, little balls of fried dough, are dipped in honey and enjoyed during the Christmas holidays.
Traditional Recipes From Campania
Mozzarella in Carrozza (Mozzarella in a “Carriage”)
This is a classic recipe from Naples served as an appetizer.
- 8 slices white bread, crusts removed
- 1 pound fresh Mozzarella, thinly sliced
- 1/2 cup unbleached all-purpose flour
- 2 large eggs
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- Extra-virgin olive oil
- Marinara Sauce
Place 4 slices of bread on the counter. Top with the mozzarella, trimmed to fit the bread. Cover with the 4 remaining slices of bread, making 4 sandwiches in all.
Spread the flour on a plate. Dip the four edges of each sandwich in the flour. Then coat the sides lightly in the flour. Place them in a baking dish or on a plate with sides.
In a small bowl, beat the eggs with the salt. Pour the mixture over the sandwiches and set aside for 10 minutes.
Delicately flip the sandwiches over and set aside for another 10 minutes. The purpose is to allow the bread to soak in the egg as much as possible.
Heat a large skillet over medium heat and pour enough olive oil in to cover the bottom of the pan.
Add the sandwiches and cook until brown; turn and brown the second side. Remove the sandwiches to serving plates, cut in half and serve with hot marinara sauce.
Paccheri con Ricotta e Salsa di Pomodoro (Macaroni with Ricotta and Tomato Sauce)
Serves 4 to 6
- 2 cups Marinara Sauce
- 1 cup whole milk ricotta
- 1/2 cup freshly grated Parmigiano-Reggiano or pecorino or a combination of both, plus extra for serving
- 1 pound paccheri or other large tubular pasta, such as rigatoni
- Freshly ground black pepper
- A few leaves of finely cut or torn fresh basil
Heat the marinara sauce.
Cook the pasta in plenty of salted, boiling water until al dente. Before draining it, scoop out about 1/2 cup of the pasta cooking water and reserve it.
In a pasta serving bowl, combine the ricotta and the grated cheese. Mix them together with a spoon or fork until well blended.
Pour about half of the hot tomato sauce into the cheese mixture in the bowl. Stir well.
Add the drained, hot pasta to the sauce, then add black pepper to taste. Toss well, adding hot pasta cooking water by the tablespoon if a looser, creamier texture is desired. The sauce tends to thicken as it cools on the plate, so 2 or 3 tablespoons are usually a good idea.
Serve immediately, preferably in hot bowls, each portion topped with a little more tomato sauce and with additional finely cut basil, if desired. Pass grated cheese and the peppermill.
Braciole Alla Napoletana (Pork Loin Braciole)
- 1 lb. boneless pork loin
- 4 cloves garlic
- 2 tablespoons sundried tomatoes, drained and chopped
- 2 tablespoons pine nuts
- 1 oz. capers
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- 1 lb. tomatoes, peeled, seeded, and chopped or one 14-1/2-ounce can of Italian tomatoes
- 1 tablespoon parsley, chopped
- Salt and pepper to taste
Slice the pork loin into ¼ inch thick slices and flatten slightly with a wooden mallet.
Chop 2 cloves of garlic very finely and mix with the sundried tomatoes, pine nuts, and capers. Place a small amount of this mix on each slice of pork and roll up the slices of pork. Tie with kitchen string.
Brown the remaining garlic in olive oil and then remove it. Add the pork braciola, brown on all sides, and add the tomatoes. Add salt and pepper to taste, cover the pan and cook for 25 minutes over a low flame. Sprinkle with parsley, remove from heat and serve.
Casatiello (Neapolitan Stuffed Bread)
This version is made without the whole eggs added to the dough prior to baking. At Easter time, whole eggs are added to the dough and baked.
- 1 package active dry yeast
- 2 cups warm water
- 4 cups unbleached all-purpose flour
- 1/3 cup olive oil
- 1 teaspoon salt
- 1 teaspoon coarse black pepper
- 1/3 cup grated Pecorino Romano cheese
- 1/2 pound chunk provolone or scamorza cheese, cut into cubes
- 1/2 pound chunk mortadella, salami, or boiled ham cut into cubes
- Salt and black pepper to taste
Preheat the oven to 375 degrees F.
Grease a 10-inch tube pan with a removable bottom and set it aside.
Dissolve the yeast in 1/2 cup warm water and let rest until foamy.
Place the flour in the bowl of a stand mixer. Add the yeast, olive oil, salt, and pepper and mix it into the flour with the paddle attachment; add the cheese and enough additional warm water to make a soft ball of dough. Cover and let it rise for 1 1/2 hours in a warm place or until it doubles in size.
Knead the dough on a floured surface and roll out into a large 18 by 14-inch rectangle. Scatter the cheese and mortadella over the surface to within an inch of the edges. Sprinkle with salt and pepper.
Starting at the longest side, roll the dough up as for a jellyroll, making sure to tuck in the ends and place it in the tube pan. Tuck the two ends together.
Cover and allow to rise for about 1 hour or until the dough is 3/4 of the way up the sides of the pan.
Bake for 45 minutes to an hour or until golden brown. Let cool on a rack then run a butter knife along the inside edges of the pan, loosen the bottom and remove it.
Turn the bread out. Serve warm; cut into wedges.