pork

Roasting Basics

Today, pork is much leaner than ever before, so leaner pork also affects the way it should be cooked. Care should be taken to not overcook pork.

There are various methods that can be used to produce juicy and flavorful pork. Some methods work better than others on different cuts of meat. There are two basic methods: dry heat and moist heat. Dry heat is most often used on cuts that are naturally tender, such as loin roasts and tenderloins. Moist Heat is used on cuts that are less tender, such as a shoulder or boneless Boston butt roast.

Roasting, which is basically the same method of cooking as baking, is often used when preparing fresh ham roasts, smoked ham roasts, crown roasts, loin roasts, tenderloins and ribs. Marinating the meat before roasting or basting it with meat juices throughout the cooking time will also help produce tender and juicy meat. Roasting is a good method to use when preparing a special dinner because it consists of a longer cooking time than other methods and needs little attention during the cooking period. This leaves time for preparing other dishes.

Roasting is accomplished by cooking the pork, usually uncovered in a heated oven. Excess fat should be trimmed and, if necessary, it should be tied. A rib roast should be tied because the outside layer of meat has a tendency to separate from the inner rib-eye muscle. The rib roast is generally tied by wrapping strings around the roast, between each of the bones. Roasts that have been tied retain their shape and provide a more visually appealing roast when cooked. Most often any boneless roast will be tied to reshape it once the bones have been removed. If a boneless roast will be stuffed, the stuffing is added, the roast is then rolled up and tied to hold the stuffing in the roast.

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To cook the roast, it is best placed on a rack in a shallow roasting pan. The rack is not necessary but if not used, the bottom of the meat will sit in the juices and stew, which will not allow it to become brown and crisp on the surface like the rest of the meat. If the meat does not have any surface fat, it can be rubbed down with 1 ½ to 2 teaspoons of oil and then seasoned.

Meat is sometimes seared before roasting to brown the surface and add flavor. Searing can be accomplished by using several different methods. One method is to use a high oven temperature for a short period of time at the beginning of the roasting time and then reduce the heat for the remainder of the time. This quickly browns the outer surface to create a flavorful crust on the surface of the meat. Another searing method used, involves frying the meat in a very hot pan until all the sides have been browned and then placing it in the oven to finish cooking.

If the meat is not going to be seared in the oven, the oven should be preheated to either 325°F or 350°F (450°F for pork tenderloin) and the meat should be at room temperature.

The length of time a cut of pork will have to cook will depend on the size of the cut and whether it is tied, stuffed, bone-in or boneless. The best way to determine if the meat has cooked long enough is to check for doneness with a meat thermometer. A thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the cut should produce a temperature of 145°F.

Roasting Tips:

  • For a crisp surface on your roast, be sure the oven is fully preheated before placing the roast into the oven in an uncovered pan.
  • To add extra flavor, rub the surface of the meat with your favorite seasonings before roasting.
  • Roasting at a lower oven temperature (NEVER roast meat below 200°F) will result in meat that is more flavorful and moist, but It will take longer to cook.
  • A roast with a bone in it will cook faster than a boneless roast because the bone will conduct heat faster.
  • Do not use sharp utensils that may pierce the meat when trying to turn it because piercing allows valuable juices to escape. Use other utensils, such as wooden spoons and spatulas for turning the meat.
  • If cooking more than one roast, be sure that there is uniform space around them so that they will cook evenly. The roasts should not be touching and there should be enough space around them to allow air and heat to circulate.
  • When placing a thermometer in the meat to check for doneness, be sure that the stem of it is not touching a bone because this can result in a false reading.
  • Using the drippings from the roasted meat will provide great flavor when making a stock, gravy or sauce.
  • Let the roast rest for 5 minutes before carving to allow the meat juices to settle in the roast.

 

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Classic Tuscan Roast Pork Loin

Ingredients

  • 6 garlic cloves, minced
  • 1 tablespoon butter, melted
  • 1 tablespoon minced fresh sage
  • 2 teaspoons minced fresh rosemary
  • 1/4 cup olive oil plus 2 tablespoons
  • 1 4-pound center-cut bone-in pork loin (rib) roast
  • 1/4 cup finely chopped hazelnuts
  • 4 russet potatoes, peeled, cut into 1-inch pieces

Directions

Preheat oven to 375°F.

Whisk 1/4 cup oil, garlic, butter, sage and rosemary in a small bowl to blend. Place pork in large roasting pan. Sprinkle with salt and pepper. Rub herb mixture over pork and sprinkle with hazelnuts. Cover pork loosely with foil and roast 2 hours.

Heat the remaining oil in a large skillet. Add the potatoes and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Sauté until potatoes are golden but not tender, about 15 minutes. Transfer potatoes to the roasting pan with the pork. Toss potatoes with pan juices. Continue roasting, uncovered, until pork browns, potatoes are tender and juices are slightly reduced, about 40 minutes.

Place pork in the center of large platter. Surround with the potatoes. Pour juices over pork and potatoes.

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Italian Spiced Boneless Pork with Roasted Vegetables

Ingredients

  • 6 large garlic cloves, coarsely chopped
  • 2 tablespoons coarsely chopped rosemary leaves
  • 1 tablespoon whole fennel seeds
  • 1 teaspoon ground fennel
  • 2 teaspoons crushed red pepper
  • 2 teaspoons freshly ground black pepper
  • 1/4 cup extra-virgin olive oil, plus 1 tablespoon
  • One 3-pound boneless pork loin roast, trimmed of all fat
  • Salt and freshly ground pepper
  • 1 pound fresh, thin carrots, peeled
  • 16 large shallots, peeled and halved
  • 1 cup chicken stock or low-sodium broth

Directions

Preheat the oven to 350°F.

In a mini processor, combine the garlic, rosemary, fennel seeds, ground fennel, crushed red pepper, black pepper and olive oil and process to a paste. Set the pork roast on a sheet of foil and cut shallow score marks all over the fat. Spread 1 tablespoon of the garlic paste on the underside of the roast; spread the remaining paste all over the scored fat and meaty parts of the roast. Season all over with salt.

Spread the carrots and shallots around the edge of a shallow roasting pan, setting the shallots cut sides down. Leave enough room in the center for the pork.

In a large nonstick skillet, heat the remaining 1 tablespoon of olive oil. Add the pork loin and cook over moderately high heat until browned on all sides, about 6 minutes total. Place the pork in the roasting pan with the vegetables and roast for 45 minutes. Turn the pan 180 degrees, add 1/2 cup of the stock and roast for 20 minutes longer or until an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the meat registers 140°F.

Transfer the pork to a board. Roast the vegetables on the bottom rack of the oven for 15 minutes longer and transfer to a bowl and keep warm.

Set the roasting pan over moderately high heat, add the remaining 1/2 cup of stock and simmer for about 1 minute, scraping up the browned bits. Season with salt and pepper. Slice the pork and serve with the vegetables and sauce.

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Sausage Stuffed Pork Loin Roast

Ingredients

  • 1/2 cup fresh basil, chopped
  • 1 1/4 cups fresh parsley, chopped, divided
  • 1/2 cup pine (pignoli) nuts
  • 6 cloves garlic, peeled and chopped
  • 1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
  • 1/2 lb Italian sausage, casing removed
  • 1 cup Italian seasoned breadcrumbs
  • 1/4 cup milk
  • 1 egg
  • 1 teaspoon ground black pepper
  • 3 lb boneless pork loin or sirloin roast, butterflyied
  • Kitchen string

Directions

Preheat oven to temperature 350°F.

Blend together basil, 1 cup parsley, pine nuts, garlic and cheese in a food processor or blender. Set aside.

Mix the sausage, breadcrumbs, milk, egg, pepper and the remaining 1/4 cup parsley in a bowl.

Place pork roast fat side down. If the thickeness of the meat is uneven, carefully pound the meat to make it a unifrom thickness.

Spread the basil mixture over the pork and place sausage mixture lenghthwise down the center of the meat. Fold in half and tie the roast in four or five places.

Roast 1-1/2 to 2 hours. Let rest and slice.

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Pork Tenderloin With Roasted Apples And Pumpkin Risotto

Ingredients

  • 3 tablespoons olive oil
  • 3 cloves garlic, finely minced
  • 3/4 teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground nutmeg
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
  • 1/4 teaspoon ground allspice
  • 1 1/4 teaspoons salt
  • 1 tablespoon maple syrup
  • 2 (1-pound) pork tenderloins
  • 4 tart apples, such as Braeburn, McIntosh or Granny Smith, peeled, cored and quartered
  • 1/4 cup dry white wine
  • 1 cup chicken broth
  • 2 tablespoons cold butter, cut into small pieces

Directions

Heat the oven to 425 degrees F. In a large bowl, combine the 3 tablespoons olive oil, garlic, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, allspice, salt and maple syrup. Add the tenderloins to the bowl and turn them in the spice mix to coat. Reserve the bowl with any remaining spice mixture.

Heat a large oven-proof saute pan (large enough to hold the tenderloins and apples) over medium-high heat until hot. Add the tenderloins and sear on all sides. If the meat starks to stick, add a little oil.

Add the apples to the bowl that contained the pork spices and mix to coat. When the tenderloins are seared, remove the pan the from heat and scatter the apples around the tenderloins in the pan.

Place the pan in the oven and roast until a thermometer inserted in the center of the tenderloins reaches 140 degrees F, 20 to 25 minutes, or to desired doneness.

Remove the pan from the oven and remove the tenderloins to cutting board to rest. Place the apples on a serving platter.

Place the pan on the stove over medium-high heat. Deglaze the pan with the white wine, scraping the bottom of the pan to dislodge any browned bits. Stir in the chicken broth and simmer until the sauce is reduced by about two-thirds and slightly thickened, about 3 minutes.

Remove the pan from the heat and stir in the butter to further thicken the sauce and add a sheen.

Slice the tenderloins and arrange with the apples on the platter. Pour the sauce over the pork and apples.

Pumpkin Risotto

Ingredients

  • 6 cups vegetable broth
  • 2 tablespoons butter
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1 onion, cut into 1/4-inch dice
  • 1 large clove garlic, minced
  • 1½ cups vialone nano or arborio rice
  • 1/4 teaspoon freshly grated nutmeg
  • 1/3 cup dry white wine
  • 1½ cups pumpkin puree, divided
  • Salt and pepper
  • 1/3 cup chopped toasted walnuts
  • Walnut oil and grated Parmigiano-Reggiano, for garnish

Directions

In a medium saucepan, bring the vegetable broth to a simmer over medium heat.

In a large heavy-bottomed pot or Dutch oven, melt the butter and olive oil over medium heat. Stir in the onion and garlic and cook, stirring frequently, until the onion is translucent and just beginning to color, 8 to 10 minutes.

Stir in the rice and nutmeg and cook, stirring frequently and coating the rice with the fat, until the rice just begins to toast, about 3 minutes.

Add the wine and continue to stir, cooking until the wine is mostly absorbed.

Add a (soup) ladle of broth and cook, stirring constantly, until the broth is almost completely absorbed. Continue adding an additional ladle of broth as each is absorbed by the rice.

After 10 minutes of cooking the rice, stir in 1 cup of the pumpkin puree with another ladle of broth. Season with one-half teaspoon salt and a pinch of pepper.

Continue cooking the rice, stirring in additional broth as needed, until the rice is slightly al dente, about another 10 minutes.

Stir in the remaining pumpkin puree, the chopped walnuts and 2 tablespoons walnut oil.

Serve each portion with a light drizzle of walnut oil and a sprinkling of freshly grated cheese.

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