Although the first U.S. reference to panini dates to 1956 and a precursor appeared in a 16th-century Italian cookbook, panini sandwiches became trendy in Milanese bars, called paninoteche, in the 1970s, when office workers were looking for quick lunch choices. Trendy U.S. restaurants, particularly in New York, began selling the sandwiches, whose popularity then spread to other U.S. cities, each producing distinctive variations of of the sandwich.
Food historians generally agree, panini, as we know them today, originated in the sandwich shops of Italy, perhaps as early as the 1960s. A survey of newspaper articles confirms that the panini sandwich caught the American consumers attention in the mid-1970s. As time progressed, panini evolved from upscale fare to trendy sandwiches for everyone.
In many English-speaking countries, a panino (Italian pronunciation: [paˈniːno] from the Italian, meaning “small bread, bread roll”) is a grilled sandwich made from bread other than sliced bread. The plural form of “panino” in Italian is panini. Examples of the bread types used for panini are ciabatta, foccacia and Italian baguettes. The bread is cut horizontally and filled with deli ingredients or other foods and then pressed in a grill. There is widespread availability and use of sandwich presses, often known as “panini presses” or “toasted sandwich makers.”
In Italy classic filling combinations are:
mozzarella, tomato (plus arugula and/or prosciutto);
prosciutto and fontina cheese
prosciutto, chese and olive tapenade;
bresaola, goat cheese or stracchino (plus lettuce and/or tomato);
speck (smoked cured prosciutto from Tyrol), arugula and cheese
grilled vegetables and cheese.
When Italian panini are offered outside of Italy, they tend to differ quite substantially. The biggest no-no’s are the use of:
More than one kind of meat (this is very unlikely in Italy);
Large amounts of meat (in Italy, more than a few slices would be considered overpowering);
Too many ingredients (in Italy, it’s never more than 3 or 4 in total);
Any kind of dressing (oil and vinegar are for salads, not for sandwiches);
Honey-mustard, barbecue sauce, spicy mayo (since they don’t exist in Italy).
Do you know who invented the sandwich press?
Thomas Edison. Before sandwich grills, people had to toast each slice of bread individually using an electric toaster or a griddle. The sandwich grill made it possible to brown two slices of bread at the same time. Unfortunately, Edison’s novel approach to sandwich-making didn’t get much attention from home cooks. It was discontinued in the early 1930s, according to the museum at Thomas Edison’s winter estate in Fort Myers, FL, where the celebrated scientist’s sandwich grill is on display. Edison’s contribution to the world of grilled sandwiches was entirely forgotten by the time Breville came out with its panini press in 1974.
A panini press, which is essentially a two-sided grill, used to grill a sandwich. This method may also be accomplished by placing the sandwich on a grill, pressing down firmly with a spatula, then turning the sandwich over and repeating the process. Depending on your preference, the outsides of the bread may or may not be buttered or brushed with extra virgin olive oil to give it a crisp texture.
Thinly sliced grilled chicken, turkey and roast beef can also make delicious panini. The meat needs to be cooked before being placed in the sandwich — grilling a panini only heats it through and does not actually cook the meat. After you’ve selected the bread, meat and cheese, decide on the extras.
Some popular additions to panini include spinach, roasted red peppers, basil, olive oil, olives, tomatoes, garlic, balsamic vinegar and oregano. For a vegetable panini, use eggplant or zucchini, or any other vegetable that can be grilled. Panini make for a delicious and filling meal that is simple and quick to make and one that can be customized to your tastes.
Classic Italian Panino
- One 6″ rectangular piece focaccia or ciabatta bread
- 2 thin slices prosciutto or speck
- 2 thin slices taleggio or fontina cheese
- 1⁄2 cup arugula
- 2 tablespoons aged balsamic vinegar
- Kosher salt and freshly ground black pepper, to taste
Split the bread in half and place prosciutto, fontina, and arugula on the bottom half. Drizzle with vinegar, season with salt and pepper and cover with the top half. Place in a panini press and grill just until the cheese begins to melt.
In central Italy, herb-and-garlic-seasoned pork roast is called porchetta. If you cannot find delicatessen porchetta (sold in some specialty food stores), use roasted pre-marinated Italian pork tenderloin. Cool the pork before cutting into thin slices. If you can’t find the olive mix, chop some garlic-stuffed green olives and mix in a bit of olive oil.
- 4 slices (½-inch thick) Italian country bread
- Olive oil
- 6 ounces thinly sliced porchetta or cooked Italian-seasoned pork tenderloin
- 2 tablespoons minced green olive mix or tapenade
- 2 ounces sliced Asiago cheese
Preheat a panini grill or stove-top griddle pan.
Divide pork, olive mix and cheese between 2 slices of bread. Top with remaining bread.
Brush the outsides of the bread lightly with oil.
Place sandwiches on a panini grill or stove top griddle. Cover with grill top or a grill press.
Grill 2 to 3 minutes or until golden and cheese starts to melt.
Tomato, Artichoke and Fontina Panini
- 4 slices sourdough or multi-grain bread
- 4 slices Italian Fontina cheese (3/4 ounce each)
- 1/2 cup marinated artichoke hearts, well-drained and sliced
- 1/2 cup fresh baby spinach
- 4 slices tomato
On two slices of bread, layer half the cheese, artichokes, spinach, two slices of tomato and the remaining half of the cheese.
Top with the uncovered bread slices.
Cook on a panini maker or indoor grill until bread is toasted and the cheese melts.
Grilled Vegetable and Cheese Panini
- One small onion (sliced)
- 2 bell peppers, red or yellow (seeded and each cut in 4 wedges)
- 2 zucchini (sliced)
- 4 oz. (100 g) provolone, scamorza or fontina cheese (sliced)
- One handful of fresh arugula
- 1 tablespoon of olive oil
- Salt and cayenne pepper
- 4 slices (½-inch thick) Italian country bread
In a small skillet, saute the onion in olive oil over medium heat for 5 minutes, then lower the temperature and cook for an additional 15 minutes, stirring occasionally. Season with salt and cayenne pepper to taste.
Grill the bell peppers and zucchini on a stove-top or outdoor grill (lightly sprinkled with salt) for about 15 minutes over medium heat.
When the peppers are ready, put them aside and peel off the skin (it should come off easily – if it doesn’t, let the peppers rest for 10 minutes in a sealed zip-lock while they are still warm).
Assemble the sandwich by layering the cheese, the grilled vegetables, the onions and the arugula on one half of the bread slices. Cook the sandwiches in the press until the cheese melts.
Pesto Chicken Panini
- 2 (2- to 3-ounce) Ciabatta rolls or foccacia bread
- Olive oil
- 2 tablespoons basil pesto
- 2 ounces mozzarella or fontina cheese, sliced
- 6 ounces thinly sliced grilled or roasted chicken
- 1 tomato, sliced thin
Preheat a panini grill or stove-top griddle pan.
Slice the bread in half. Spread the cut sides if the bread with pesto.
Top one side with chicken, cheese and tomatoes. Place the top on and brush lightly with olive oil, if desired.
Place in the grill or on a griddle. Cook 2 to 3 minutes until golden and the cheese starts to melt.
No matter what the calendar says, Memorial Day kicks off the start of summer and the grilling season. Here are some tips on how to be a successful griller:
Treat your grill just like any other cooking surface — give it a good cleaning before and after you cook. Scrubbing and oiling the grill grates not only protects the grates but creates a nonstick surface for cooking.
A hot grill makes for easier cleaning (as any of the stuck-on food bits become brittle and easier to scrape off), but if your grill really needs a deep clean, preheat the grill then turn it off while you scrub and oil.
When preparing a charcoal grill, don’t skimp on the charcoal. Light the coals at least 30 minutes before you plan to begin cooking. Do not put foods on the grill until the fire dies down to glowing coals.
Even gas grills need to preheat. Turn on the flame at least 15 minutes before putting food over the fire. This will help to warm up the grate and stabilize the temperature of the grill environment.
Don’t grill anything too fatty or with too much marinade, as this can cause flare-ups. Most recipes will direct you to trim excess fat or shake off any excess marinade — this step is included for your safety.
Metal skewers get hot which helps meat to cook more evenly — just remember to use tongs or an oven mitt when turning them on the grill. Double-skewer items that might fall off, such as shrimp, chicken strips or slices of summer squash. In this case, skewers can help keep ingredients from twirling and also maintain the shape of the ingredient.
Grill delicate of small foods in a perforated grill pan — it will keep the food from falling through the cooking grate.
For larger cuts, such as chickens, roasts or a rack of ribs, do most of your cooking away from any actual flames and keep the grill lid closed. This allows for slower cooking and more even temperatures. Unless you have a serious cookout in the making, most grills are big enough to prepare one side for lower heat cooking and one side for high heat. Move hot coals to one half of the grill or turn off one or more burners to create indirect heat.
Can’t decide whether to use a direct or indirect method? If the food takes less than 20 minutes to cook, use direct heat; if it takes longer, use indirect heat.
If the grill gets too hot, turn it off or pull everything off the grill. If it’s not hot enough, close the lid, as this will help to build heat quickly.
GRILLING BEEF & PORK
The appropriate heat levels and cooking times are crucial for grilling meat, so that it stays tender and juicy. Each type of cut has its own rules:
Use direct heat for chops, steaks and hamburgers.
Use indirect heat for Italian sausage, roasts and larger cuts of meat.
Cover the grill when cooking less tender cuts of meat.
Slash the edges of steaks and chops on the diagonal, about ¼ inch into the center to prevent the edges from curling.
Resist the urge to squeeze or press down on the grilling meat! This will result in a tougher, less juicy cut.
Steaks like filet mignon, ribeye, top sirloin and New York strip are naturally tender and need nothing more than a seasoning rub or a bit of salt and pepper before grilling.
Larger steaks like flank, skirt steak and London broil are best when soaked in a flavorful marinade before grilling.
Cuts like brisket, shank and chuck demand long, slow, indirect cooking.
Ribeye is excellent on the grill because of its marbling and its ability to hold up to strong flavors in spice rubs and marinades.
Lean, tender pork chops can be marinated or rubbed with spices and then cooked over the coals.
Pork spare ribs and baby back ribs can be prebaked and then grilled to achieve a smoky flavor.
Pork tenderloin grills quickly, is low in fat and can be sliced easily for an attractive presentation.
Treat larger cuts of pork, like pork shoulder, the way you would larger cuts of beef.
Keep this homemade Italian Vinaigrette on hand to quickly give foods flavor before grilling.
- 1 tablespoon dried Italian mixed herbs
- 3 cloves garlic, pressed
- 1 tablespoon prepared Dijon mustard
- 1 tablespoon honey
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1/2 teaspoon cracked black pepper
- 3 tablespoons red wine vinegar
- 1/2 cup olive oil
Whisk all the ingredients together and drizzle olive oil in a little at a time. Yields: ¾ cup
Always cook all types of meat thoroughly and use an instant-read thermometer inserted into the middle of the thickest part of the meat. Wait a couple of minutes before reading and follow these simple temperature guidelines:
|Cooked meat||Temperatures in degrees F|
Italian Flank Steak
- 1 large (1 1/2-pound) grass-fed flank steak
- 3/4 teaspoon fine sea salt
- 1/2 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
- 1 1/2 cups lightly packed baby spinach leaves
- 1/2 cup lightly packed basil leaves
- 1/4 pound provolone cheese, thinly sliced
- 2 teaspoons extra-virgin olive oil
Soak 8 toothpicks in water for at least 20 minutes and prepare the grill for medium heat cooking. Don’t forget to oil the grill grates.
Butterfly steak by slicing it horizontally with a very sharp knife, stopping about 1 inch before you would slice all the way through. Open meat up, like opening a book, and sprinkle all sides with salt and pepper.
Layer opened steak with spinach, basil and provolone slices. Starting on one long side, roll up tightly.
Secure the rolled steak at the seam and ends with the soaked toothpicks.
Brush the outside of the steak with oil and grill, turning frequently, until the steak is deeply browned all over, about 12-15 minutes for medium rare (an instant-read thermometer inserted into the center should register 125-130°F). Don’t overcook or the steak will be dry.
Transfer steak to a cutting board, cover loosely with foil and let stand 10 minutes. Remove toothpicks and thinly slice. Arrange on a serving platter.
Grilled Sausage and Pepper Salad
- 4 fresh pork or turkey Italian sausage links
- 1/2 large white onion, cut into 2 thick slices
- 1 head romaine lettuce, chopped
- 4 ounces feta cheese, crumbled
- 3 jarred roasted red peppers, drained and chopped
- Olive oil for brushing
- Prepared Italian salad dressing
Oil the grill grates and prepare the grill for medium-high heat cooking. Prepare one side of the grill for indirect heat
Brush the onion slices and sausages with oil.
Grill sausages on the indirect heat side of the grill for 30 minutes turning then after 15 minutes.
Grill onion on the direct heat side of the grill, turning occasionally, until the onion is tender, 8 to 10 minutes
When cool enough to handle, slice sausages thickly on the bias and cut the grilled onion into chunks.
Toss romaine, feta and red peppers in a large salad bowl with a little Italian salad dressing.
Spoon romaine mixture onto serving plates and top with sausages and onion.
The mild flavor of poultry makes it ideal for grilling. Whether you choose chicken, duck, turkey or game hen, marinating or using a dry rub will maximize flavor. Once you’ve selected your specific cut of poultry and seasoning method, follow these tips:
Thin pieces of poultry can be cooked over direct heat; larger pieces of chicken should be cooked over indirect heat.
Cook whole and butterflied poultry breast-side down.
Turning poultry pieces every 5 minutes and rotating pieces around the grill can help ensure even cooking.
Place a drip pan under a whole chicken or turkey breast to catch the juices.
Allow turkey to rest 20 minutes before carving. Remember, smoked turkey may appear a little pink even when thoroughly cooked.
Always cook poultry thoroughly. Test with an instant read thermometer (it should reach 165°F).
Insert the thermometer into the middle of the thickest part of the meat, taking care not to touch any bone. Wait a couple of minutes before reading. For whole poultry, insert the thermometer into the thickest part of the thigh.
|Part of the Poultry||Time|
|Whole Chicken||15-20 minutes per pound, about 1 3/4 hours|
|Butterflied Whole Chicken||About 1 hour|
|Bone-in Breast, Leg & Thigh||12-15 minutes per side|
|Wing||2-3 minutes per side|
|Boneless Chicken Breast||4-6 minutes per side|
|Boneless Turkey Breast (up to 3 pounds)||1-1 1/2 hours|
|Boneless Turkey Breast (3-9 pounds)||2-3 hours|
Grilled Chicken and Peppers Over Arugula
- 2 skinless, boneless chicken breast halves (about 1 1/4 pounds total)
- 7 tablespoons prepared Italian salad dressing, divided
- 2 bell peppers (red or green, or 1 of each), quartered
- 1/4 small red onion, thinly sliced
- 6 lightly packed cups arugula leaves
Split the chicken breasts by placing them on a cutting board and using a sharp knife to slice evenly through them, while applying slight pressure on top with the other hand.
Oil the grill grates and prepare a grill for medium-high heat cooking.
Brush chicken breasts on both sides with 3 tablespoons of the salad dressing.
In a small bowl, toss bell peppers with 2 tablespoons of the dressing.
Place chicken on one side of the grill and the peppers on the other side. Grill chicken and peppers, turning occasionally, until chicken is cooked through and peppers are tender and browned, 6 to 7 minutes.
Toss onion and arugula with the remaining 2 tablespoons of salad dressing and arrange on a platter. Slice chicken and peppers; place them on top of the arugula salad.
Pesto Turkey Burgers with Grilled Onions
- 1 1/2 pounds ground turkey
- 1/3 cup prepared basil pesto
- Olive oil
- 1 sweet onion, peeled, but leave the root ends intact and cut into 4 thick slices
- 6 ounces fresh mozzarella cheese, cut into 4 slices
- 4 hamburger buns
In a large bowl, combine turkey and pesto. Form the mixture into 4 patties, each about 3/4-inch thick.
Brush the onion slices and burgers with oil.
Oil the grill grates and heat the grill to medium. Grill burgers and onions until browned and cooked through, about 4 to 5 minutes per side.
Place burgers on the buns and top each with a slice of mozzarella and a slice of grilled onion.
Part 2 Tomorrow
The region of Abruzzo is hilly and mountainous and stretches from the Apennines to the Adriatic Sea. In this part of the Adriatic, the long sandy beaches are replaced by steep and rocky coasts. L’Aquila is the regional capital. Pescara, Chieti and Teramo are other important cities.
Abruzzo boasts the title of “Greenest Region in Europe” thanks to one third of its territory, the largest in Europe, being set aside as national parks and protected nature reserves. In the region there are three national parks, one regional park and 38 protected nature reserves. These ensure the survival of 75% of all of Europe’s living species and are also home to some rare species, such as the small wading dotterel, golden eagle, Abruzzo chamois, Apennine wolf and Marsican brown bear. Abruzzo is also home to Calderone, Europe’s southernmost glacier.
The Abruzzo region has two types of climate: the first is strongly influenced by the presence of Abruzzo’s Apennines range. Coastal areas have a Mediterranean climate with hot dry summers and mild winters, rainy hills and a climate where temperatures progressively decrease with increasing altitude. Precipitation is also strongly affected by the presence of the Apennines mountain ridges with increased rain on the slopes of the mountains in the region.
Until a few decades ago, Abruzzo was a region of poverty in Southern Italy. Since the 1950s, Abruzzo has had steady economic growth. In 1951, the Abruzzo per capita income or GDP was 53% of that of Northern Italy, the nation’s richest region. By 1971, Abruzzo was at 65% and, by 1994, the per capita income was at 76% of Northern Italy’s per capita income, giving Abruzzo the highest per capita GDP of Southern Italy and surpassing the growth of every other region in Italy. The construction of superhighways from Rome to Teramo (A24) and Rome to Pescara (A25) opened Abruzzo to easy access. Abruzzo also attained higher per capita education levels and greater productivity growth than the rest of the South.
The 2009 L’Aquila earthquake led to a sharp economic slowdown. However, according to statistics at the end of 2010, it seems that the economy of Abruzzo is recovering, despite the negative data regarding employment. At the end of 2010, Abruzzo’s growth was placed fourth among the Italian regions with the highest annual growth rates after Lazio, Lombardy and Calabria.
Abruzzo’s industrial sector expanded rapidly, especially in mechanical engineering, transportation equipment and telecommunications. Both pure and applied research are carried out in the region where there are major institutes and factories involved in research, especially, in the fields of pharmaceuticals, biomedicine, electronics, aerospace and nuclear physics. The industrial infrastructure is spread throughout the region in industrial zones, the most important of which are Val Pescara, Val Sangro, Val Trigno, Val Vibrata and Conca del Fucino.
A further activity worthy of note is seaside and mountain tourism, which is of considerable importance to the economy of the region. In the past decade, tourism has increased due to Abruzzo’s wealth of castles and medieval towns, especially around L’Aquila. Beach-goers also flock to places like Tortoreto, Giulianova, Silvi Marina, Roseto and, further south, Ortona, Vasto and San Salvo. Ski resorts are equally popular.
Agriculture has succeeded in modernizing and offering higher-quality products. The mostly small, agricultural properties produce wine, cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, olives, vegetables, fruit and dairy products. Traditional products are saffron and liquorice. Most famous in the wine world is Abruzzo’s Montepulciano d’Abruzzo. Montepulciano d’Abruzzo has earned a reputation as being one of the most widely exported DOC classed wine in Italy.
Abruzzo has a rich culinary tradition, with various traditions attached to each province.
Battered and fried zucchini blooms, spit-roasted scamorza cheese, vinegar-poached lobster, salame di pecora (a rare sheep’s meat salami), crepes loaded with cheese and vegetables in a rich mutton broth, hearty ragus, ricotta cheese drizzled with honey and dusted with saffron powder .… are just a few of the complex and elegant flavors to be found on Abruzzi tables.
Ragus are a generalized term for any type of meat-based sauce. Ragus are heavily associated with the cooking of Southern Italy, as well, and seem to have begun their migration southward from the Abruzzi region.
This is a cheese-loving region and mozzarella and scamorza take center stage on the dairy scene. Both cow’s milk cheeses are young, mild, creamy and sweet with smooth textures and a stringiness that allows them to hold up equally well in baked dishes or on their own as table cheeses.
The maccheroni alla chitarra are highly renowned (homemade pasta cut on a machine with thin steel blades) and scrippelle are thin strips of pasta eaten in soup. On the coast, most first courses are fish-based, often made with tomato to enhance the taste of “poor man’s fish,” that are caught off the shores of ancient fishing villages.
As for second courses, a typical recipe is scapece, which is pickled fried fish. Guazzetto or fish broth is also popular in coastal towns. Other than sea fare, one will find plenty of lamb, kid and mutton on the dinner table, while pork is used for prosciutto, lonza, ventricina and other typical salamis that are produced locally. Abruzzi lamb, in general, is considered superior in flavor to other lamb found elsewhere because of the animals’ mountain-grazed diets rich in herbs.
Among the desserts, often made with almonds and honey, you will find nougat or torrone; confetti (typical sugared almonds) and cicerchiata, small balls of fried dough covered in honey.
Traditional Recipes from Abuzzo
Potato Soup with Saffron
- 1 ¼ lb potatoes
- 10 oz cannarozzi – spaghetti cut into small pieces
- 1/2 onion, diced
- 1 carrot, diced
- 1 celery stalk, diced
- 1 teaspoon Saffron threads
- 2 ½ oz extra virgin olive oil
- Celery leaves for garnish
Lightly sauté the onion, carrot and celery in the olive oil. As soon as the mixture has cooled, add the saffron, mix well and then let rest to dissolve the saffron.
Boil and peel the potatoes and cut them into chunks.
Add 8 ¼ cups of water to the pot containing the saffron mixture and then salt to taste. Bring to a boil and add the pasta. When the pasta is cooked, add the potatoes. Heat and serve garnished with celery leaves.
Timballo di Crespelle
This recipe is often served at wedding lunches, where it generally follows the soup course.
For the crespelle (crepes):
- 50g [2 oz] all-purpose flour
- Olive oil, for the pan
- 3 eggs
- 6 tablespoons water
For the filling:
- 125g [4 oz] ground meat
- 100g [3 1/2 oz] spinach
- 75g [2 1/2 oz] mozzarella cheese, sliced
- 20g [1 scant oz] butter
- 2 tablespoons milk
- 5 tablespoons olive oil
- 3 artichokes
- 2 tablespoons grated Grana or Parmesan cheese
- 1 tablespoon chopped parsley
- 1 chicken liver
- 1 egg
- 1 egg yolk
To make the filling.
Mince the chicken liver and combine it with the ground meat.
Heat 2 tablespoons oil in a saucepan and gently brown the ingredients over moderate heat for 3 minutes. Set aside.
Clean the spinach, blanch in a little salted water for 5 minutes; drain, squeeze out any excess water and lightly cook it with the butter for 4 minutes. Set aside.
Clean and trim the artichokes, discard the tough outer leaves and trim off the tips; cut in half, discard the inner fuzz and slice them. Sprinkle with the parsley and a dash of salt and cook in a saucepan with 3 tablespoons olive oil for 20 minutes, moistening with a little water, if need be. Set aside.
Break the egg into a mixing bowl, add the milk and egg yolk and whisk with a fork. Set aside
To make the crespelle.
Put the flour, eggs and 6 tablespoons water into a mixing bowl and beat with a fork. Take a small frying pan, the bottom should be as wide as the ovenproof dish to be used for the timballo, and heat a little olive oil in it over a moderate to low heat.
Place 2 tablespoons batter into the pan, tilting to make sure it spreads out to cover the bottom; let it set and then flip. When the crespelle is ready, remove it from the pan and continue until all the batter has been used, greasing the pan each time with a little oil.
To assemble the timballo.
Butter an ovenproof dish and lay a crespelle on the bottom.
Make separate layers of sliced mozzarella, meat, spinach and artichokes, separating each with a crepe, adding a sprinkling of Grana cheese each time and a couple of tablespoons of the egg and milk mixture.
Make sure there are at least 2 layers of each ingredient, cover with another crespelle and sprinkle with the remaining cheese and egg-milk mixture.
Place the dish in the oven and bake at 220°C/425°F for 30 minutes.
Penne with Abruzzi-Style Lamb Ragu
- 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
- 1/4 cup chopped onion
- 2 ounces thinly sliced pancetta, finely chopped
- 1 tablespoon chopped rosemary
- 1/2 pound boneless lamb, cut into very fine dice
- Coarse salt
- Freshly ground pepper
- 1/2 cup dry white wine
- One 28-ounce can Italian plum tomatoes, coarsely chopped, with their juices
- 1 pound penne pasta
- 1/3 cup freshly grated Pecorino Romano cheese, plus more for serving
Put the oil and onion in a large skillet and cook over moderately high heat, stirring frequently, until the onion is pale gold. Add the pancetta and rosemary and cook, stirring occasionally, until the pancetta fat is rendered; the pancetta should remain soft.
Add the lamb and cook until browned, 5 minutes. Season with salt and pepper and stir. Add the wine and simmer until evaporated, 10 minutes. Add the tomatoes and simmer gently, stirring from time to time, until the fat begins to separate from the sauce, 15 minutes.
Meanwhile, fill a large pot with 4 quarts of water and bring to a boil. Add 1 1/2 tablespoons of coarse salt, cover and return to a boil.
Add the pasta to the pot and stir rapidly with a wooden spoon. Cover and bring back to a boil. Uncover and cook the pasta, stirring frequently, until it is al dente.
Drain the pasta and immediately transfer it to a warmed bowl. Toss with the lamb sauce and the 1/3 cup of grated cheese. Serve at once, passing additional cheese at the table.
But among Abruzzo’s desserts, Parrozzo is the most remarkable. In ancient times, Abruzzo peasants made cornmeal bread in the shape of a dome and baked it in a wood-fired oven. They called this “pan rozzo” meaning ‘unrefined bread,’ as opposed to the regular and more expensive white flour bread eaten at the time only by higher classes. At the turn of the 19th century, pastry chef Luigi D’Amico re-invented that recipe by using eggs instead of cornmeal to obtain the bread’s golden hue. He kept the dome shape and topped it with a dark chocolate coating to reproduce the bread’s charred crust.
- 2 cups 70% dark chocolate
- 1/2 cup sugar
- 1/2 cup butter, at room temperature
- 1/4 cup sweet almonds
- 10 bitter almonds
- 1/4 cup cornstarch
- 1/4 cup all-purpose flour
- 5 eggs, separated
Blanch almonds in boiling water and peel off the husk, and grind them with 2 tablespoons of sugar in a processor. Work butter with a fork, add the remaining sugar and the egg yolks and whisk well. Fold in the ground almonds and then the flour and cornstarch. Beat the egg whites in a mixer until soft peaks form and then and fold into the almond mixture.
Pour mixture in a buttered Bundt pan or dome-shaped cake mold and bake at 450° F for 45 minutes.
Melt the chocolate in a double boiler and once the parrozzo has cooled, spread the chocolate sauce over the entire surface. Allow the chocolate to set before cutting.
Although the ancient Greeks and Romans did not use the word “salad,” they enjoyed a variety of dishes with raw vegetables dressed with vinegar, oil and herbs. Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, for instance, reported that salads (acetaria) were composed of those garden products that “needed no fire for cooking and saved fuel, and which were a resource to store and always ready” (Natural History, XIX, 58). They were easy to digest and were not calculated to overload the senses or stimulate the appetite.
The food writer, Marcus Apicius, of the first century C.E. offered several salad recipes, some of which were unusual. His recipe for bread salad:
Cover the bottom of a large salad bowl with bread, then add layers of sliced chicken, more bread, sweetbreads, shredded cheese, pine nuts or almonds, cucumber slices, finely chopped onions, then finish with another layer of bread. A dressing made of celery seed, pennyroyal, mint, ginger, coriander, raisins, honey, vinegar, olive oil and white wine is poured over the salad.
Another dressing Apicius used on lettuce was a cheese sauce that included pepper, lovage, dried mint, pine nuts, raisins, dates, sweet cheese, honey, vinegar, garum (fish sauce), oil, wine and other ingredients.
Other Roman salads were similar to present-day ones, such as lettuce and cucumbers or raw endive dressed with garum (fermented fish sauce), olive oil, chopped onion and vinegar or a dressing of honey, vinegar and olive oil. Roman salad dressings eventually became more complex. Apicius gave a recipe for one containing ginger, rue (herb), dates, pepper, honey, cumin and vinegar.
With the fall of Rome, salads were less important in western Europe, although raw vegetables and fruit were eaten on fast days and as medicinal correctives. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles, chervil and slices of hard-boiled eggs.
The United States popularized mixed greens salads in the late 19th century. Several other regions of the world adopted salads throughout the second half of the 20th century. From Europe and the Americas to China, Japan and Australia, salads are sold in supermarkets, at restaurants and at fast food chains. In the US market, restaurants will often have a “Salad Bar” laid out with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their individual salad.
While we may not want to make Apicius’ salad, adding some different ingredients can bring new life to your old salad.
Insalata Nizzarda – Italian Version of Nicoise Salad
- 4 large eggs
- 2 tablespoons small capers, rinsed
- Two 7 oz jars or cans of tuna in olive oil, drained and the oil reserved
- 4 salted anchovy fillets, halved lengthwise
- 3 ripe plum, cores removed, cut into wedges
- 1/2 cup pitted green or black olives
- 4 cups arugula
- Extra virgin olive oil added to drained tuna oil to equal 6 tablespoons
- 1 ½ tablespoons lemon juice
- Sea salt
- Freshly ground black pepper
Bring a medium pan of water to a boil, add the eggs, and boil for 10 minutes, drain and cool in cold water.
Drain the oil from the tuna and add enough olive oil, if needed, to the tuna oil to measure 6 tablespoons. Break the tuna into chunks or coarse flakes.
Whisk the tuna oil, olive oil, lemon juice, salt and pepper to taste and the capers in a large deep salad bowl, one that gives you enough room for tossing once you have layered all the ingredients.
Add the tuna to the dressing and turn to coat everything. Lay the anchovy fillets on top, then the tomatoes and the olives.
Pile the arugula on top. Cover with plastic wrap and set aside in a cool place.
To serve, shell and quarter the eggs. Gently turn the salad over a couple of times and arrange the eggs on top.
- 2 cups shelled fresh or frozen green peas
- 1/2 cup extra-virgin olive oil
- 3 tablespoons balsamic vinegar
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- Freshly ground pepper
- 3 slices bacon
- 2 slices crusty bread, cut into small cubes
- 2 cups fresh torn lettuce leaves
- 2 ounces grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese
If using frozen peas just defrost them. Do not boil.
Boil fresh peas 6 minutes. Drain and rinse with cold water.
Combine olive oil, balsamic vinegar, salt and pepper. Whisk well.
Cook bacon until crispy. Remove from the pan. Toss bread cubes in drippings and cook until crispy.
Combine peas, lettuce, vinaigrette and bread cubes. Top with cheese.
Strawberry Salad with Pine Nuts and Avocado
- 1 ripe avocado, preferably Hass variety, peeled, pitted and diced
- Juice of 1 lemon
- 1 cup (heaping) strawberries, cut into 1/2-inch-thick slices
- 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil, walnut oil or hazelnut oil
- 2 tablespoons raspberry vinegar
- 2 teaspoons honey
- 1/4 teaspoon salt
- Freshly ground black pepper
- 2 cups baby arugula
- 2 tablespoons toasted pine nuts
Combine avocado with lemon juice in a large nonreactive bowl. Add berries, oil, vinegar, honey, salt and pepper and combine well. Place arugula on a serving plate. Top with avocado mixture and pine nuts. Serve.
Spinach, Grape and Feta Salad
- 1 teaspoon Dijon mustard
- 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
- 2 tablespoons olive oil
- 1/4 teaspoon coarse salt
- 1/4 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
- 4 cups baby spinach
- 1 cup red grapes, cut into halves
- 1/3 cup crumbled feta cheese
- 2 tablespoons sliced, skin-on almonds, toasted
- 2 green onions (light green and dark green parts only), finely chopped
Whisk mustard and vinegar in a small bowl. While whisking, slowly drizzle in olive oil; add salt and pepper.
Toss spinach, grapes, feta, almonds and green onions in a large bowl. Pour dressing over salad, toss to combine and serve.
Chicken Salad with Zucchini and Pine Nuts
- 1/4 cup dried cherries, chopped
- 6 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
- 1 garlic clove, minced
- 1/4 teaspoon dried oregano
- Finely grated zest of 1 lemon, plus juice of 2 lemons
- Kosher salt and freshly ground pepper
- 3 medium zucchini (2 pounds), cut into 3-by-1/2-inch sticks
- 1 large shallot, minced
- 1 1/2 pounds skinless, boneless chicken breast halves
- 3 tablespoons pine nuts
- 2 cups lightly packed baby arugula leaves
In a large nonreactive bowl, combine 2 tablespoons of the olive oil with the garlic, oregano, lemon zest, half of the lemon juice, 1/2 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper. Add the zucchini and cherries and toss to coat. Let stand at room temperature for 2 hours, stirring occasionally.
Meanwhile, in a large, shallow glass or ceramic dish, combine the minced shallot with 2 tablespoons olive oil and the remaining lemon juice. Add the chicken breast halves, turning to coat thoroughly with the marinade. Cover and refrigerate for 1 hour, turning a few times.
In a small skillet, toast the pine nuts over moderate heat, tossing a few times, until golden brown, about 2 minutes. Transfer to a plate and let cool.
Remove the chicken breast halves from the marinade, scraping off the shallot. Slice the chicken on the bias 1 1/2 inches thick and season with salt and pepper.
In a large skillet, heat the remaining 2 tablespoons of olive oil. Add the chicken slices and cook over moderately high heat, turning a few times, until lightly browned and cooked through, about 8 minutes.
Transfer the chicken to a large, shallow serving bowl and let cool slightly. Add the marinated zucchini, toasted pine nuts, arugula and toss lightly. Serve immediately
Lazio located in central Italy, stretches from the western edges of the Apennines to the Tyrrhenian Sea. The region is mainly flat with small mountainous areas in the most eastern and southern districts. Lazio has four very ancient volcanic districts, where the craters of extinct volcanoes form the lakes of Bolsena, Vico, Bracciano, Albano and Nemi. Lazio is the third most populated region of Italy and has the second largest economy of the nation. Rome is the capital of Italy, as well as the region. Other important cities are Frosinone, Latina, Viterbo and Rieti.
Until the late 19th century, much of the lowland area of Lazio was marshy and malarial. Major reclamation work in the early 20th century resulted in drainage and repopulation of the plain that transformed the region. Migratory grazing was greatly reduced and wheat, maize, vegetables, fruit and meat and dairy products were able to flourish in the lowlands, while olive groves and vineyards gradually began to cover the slopes.
Light industry developed with the help of regional development programs, particularly in and around the new satellite towns of Aprilia, Pomezia and Latina, south of Rome. Rome is the region’s commercial and banking center, but it has little industry apart from artisan and specialized industries, such as fashions. Large numbers of persons are employed by the government. In the rest of the region only chemical and pharmaceutical plants, food industries, papermaking and a few small machine industries are of significance.
Rome, including the Vatican, is Italy’s largest tourist center and tourism is also important at resorts in the Alban Hills, the Apennines and along the coast.
Lazio’s transportation is also dominated by Rome’s railways and roads and the city has one of Europe’s busiest international airports. Civitavecchia, the only port of importance, is noted chiefly for its trade with Sardinia.
Take a tour of the Lazio region with the video below.
Lazio has developed food that is a great example of how the simple dishes of the poor working classes (farmers, miners, craftsmen) have formed the cuisine for all. Add to this a heavy influence of Jewish cooking and a variety of flavor combinations emerge.
Typical Roman food has its roots in the past and reflects the old traditions in most of its offerings. It is based on fresh vegetables (artichokes, deep-fried or simmered in olive oil with garlic and mint) and inexpensive cuts of meat (called “quinto quarto,” meaning mainly innards, cooked with herbs and hot chili pepper). It also consists of deep-fried appetizers (such as salted cod and zucchini blossoms) and sharp Pecorino cheese (made from sheep’s milk from the nearby countryside).
The hills in Lazio are rich and fertile making it easy to grow vegetables of all types which in turn makes them an important part of the cuisine. They are cooked with liberal amounts of oil, herbs and garlic and, more often than not, a good portion of anchovies.
Lazio appetizers feature fresh seafood, preserved meats, ripe produce, artisanal breads, olives and olive oils produced within the region. Lazio cuisine may use fresh or dried pasta in many different shapes. Fresh pasta is usually found in lasagne or fettuccine. Lazio recipes for pasta often call for tubes, as this shape is more effective for holding onto hearty sauces. Potato, rice or semolina gnocchi dumplings are also commonly prepared. Suppli al telefono are hand held balls of rice stuffed with mozzarella cheese and sometimes flavored with liver or anchovies.
Chicken is used more here than in other regions and they also eat a fair amount of rabbit. Pork is used to make Guanciale or cured pork cheek, Ventresca or cured belly meat, Mortadella di Amatrice, sausages or salsicce, lard and prosciutto. Often the salumi are spicy and flavorful.
Much of the fish consumed in Lazio comes from the Tiber River and Bolsena Lake, including ciriole, caption and freshwater eels.
Even when it comes to desserts, they keep it simple. Maritozzi, a type of cream-filled pastry, doughnuts, fried rice treats and ricotta tarts are all popular.
Lazio is known for Est Est Est a wine that is produced in the area near Lake Bolsena and Falerno.
This deep dish pie is probably named for the town of Gaeta and the pan they used to prepare the pie. It was popular for the farmers and fishermen, so that they had a meal that could keep for a few days. It consists of a rustic pizza round that usually contains olives, fish (such as anchovies and / or sardines, octopus and squid), ricotta cheese or other cheeses and vegetables, such as tomatoes or onion.
- 10 ½ oz (300 gr) Italian flour (00 flour)
- 7 oz (200 gr) all-purpose flour
- 1 teaspoon salt
- 1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
- 1 teaspoon yeast
- 3/4 cup warm water
Ingredients for the filling
- 1 1/4 lbs (500 gr) octopus
- 2 tablespoons red wine vinegar
- 3/4 cup (60 gr) black olives
- 3 cloves garlic, minced
- 1 cup (200 gr) tomatoes, diced
- 2 tablespoons (20 gr) parsley
- 1 ½ teaspoons (3 gr) crushed red chilli pepper
- Salt to taste
Combine the dough ingredients and let it rise, push the dough down and let it rise again.
Roll out half the dough to fit a 10 inch baking pan.
Put the octopus in a large pot of boiling salted water with the vinegar and boil until tender, about 45 minutes. Drain, rinse with cold water, and peel as much of the skin off the octopus as you can while it is still hot. Chop the octopus into bite-size pieces.
Combine the filling ingredients.
Place the filling in the dough covered pan.
Roll out the remaining dough and cover the filling. Seal and brush the dough with extra virgin olive oil.
Bake at 350 degrees F (180-200) for about 25-30 minutes.
Spaghetti and Roman Broccoli
- 1 head Romanesco broccoli or regular broccoli
- 2 cloves garlic
- 1 tablespoon of tomato paste
- 2 ¼ cups (500 ml) of vegetable broth
- 8 oz (220 gr) of spaghetti, broken into pieces
- Salt and Pepper
- 5 tablespoons grated Pecorino Romano
- 1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
For Romanesco broccoli:
Clean and dice in small pieces. Set aside in a bowl.
If using regular broccoli:
Wash the broccoli, clean the tops and cut off the florets. Dice the stalks. Set aside in a bowl.
Fry the garlic in the oil until golden in a large saucepan. Add the broccoli to the pan and stir well.
Add the vegetable broth and the tomato paste, stir and bring to a boil. Cook for about 20 minutes until the broccoli is tender.
Add salt and pepper according to taste.
Cook the spaghetti in boiling salted water. Drain and add to the broccoli in the saucepan and heat. Serve sprinkled with grated cheese.
Carbonara, Cacio e Pepe, Amatriciana and Gricia are the four most popular pasta dishes in Rome. Together they form the backbone of Primi courses at every trattoria in the Eternal City, where the locals have strong, vocal opinions on where to find the best execution of each, never all at one place.
- 12 oz (320 gr) bucatini pasta
- 3 ½ oz (100 gr) Pecorino romano cheese, grated
- 3 ½ oz (100 gr) guanciale or pancetta or bacon
- Extra virgin olive oil
- Salt and pepper
Dice the bacon and brown over low heat in a large skillet with 2 tablespoons of oil.
Cook the pasta in plenty of lightly salted boiling water, al dente. Drain well. Add to the skillet with the bacon and sauté for 1 minute.
Sprinkle with the cheese and freshly ground pepper. Drizzle with olive oil and serve immediately.
Salt Cod Fillets Roman Style
- 1 1/3 lbs (600 gr) salted codfish (baccalà), soaked
- 3 ½ oz (100 gr) flour
- 1 cup warm water
- 1 (1/4-ounce) packet dry active yeast
- 2 tablespoon butter, melted
- Olive oil
Soak the baccalà in cold water for at least 3 days prior to preparing this dish. Change the water each day.
Combine butter, flour, water and yeast in a mixing bowl. Let the batter rest for 30 minutes.
Dry and cut the cod into serving pieces.
Coat each fillet in batter, then fry in a large pan with very hot oil.
Place fillets on paper towels to drain before serving.
Hazelnut Cake Viterbo
- Cake pan – 10 inches or 26 cm diameter
- 1/2 cup (50 g) potato starch
- 7 1/8 oz (200 gr) 00 Italian flour
- 1 2/3 cups (350 gr) sugar
- 1/3 cup (60 gr) milk chocolate, chopped
- 1 ¼ cups (200 gr) chopped toasted hazelnuts
- 1/2 cup 50 gr raisins softened in a little milk
- 6 oz (170 gr) milk
- 3 eggs
- Zest of 1 lemon
- 5 ¼ oz (150 g) butter, softened
- 2 teaspoons baking powder
- Powdered sugar for garnish
In a large bowl mix the potato starch, flour, baking powder, sugar, chocolate, chopped hazelnuts and softened butter.
Add one egg at a time and mix it into the mixture before adding the next. Add the drained raisins, lemon zest and milk.
Butter the pan and sprinkle with flour mixed with a little sugar.
Pour the cake mixture into the pan and bake in the oven at 325 degrees F (160-170) for 45-50 minutes.
Remove the cake from the oven and allow to cool. Sprinkle with powdered sugar before serving.
Citrus fruit (grapefruit, lemons, limes and oranges) are at their best in the winter and can add a burst of flavor to your recipes. These fruits are a rich source of vitamin C, which helps protect you from infection, can help keep your skin smooth, heals wounds and cuts and assists in red blood cell formation and repair.
A little bit of lemon zest brightens up morning pancakes while some freshly squeezed orange juice can be used to marinate mahi-mahi before grilling it.
Try these suggestions for adding citrus fruit to your menu.
- Make citrus fruit salad and include all of your favorites Try it with a sprinkling of unsweetened coconut flakes or a bit of raw honey and a sprinkling of nuts.
- Enjoy citrus for dessert with a square of dark chocolate.
- Pair with almost any variety of cheese. Hard, salty cheese adds wonderful balance and flavor to the sweet acidity of the fruit.
- Stir into Greek yogurt, cottage or ricotta cheese and eat as is or with a bit of honey or sliced dates for breakfast or a snack.
- Bake with citrus fruits.
- Cut into rounds and serve with a leafy green salad for a beautiful presentation.
- Add citrus to smoothie blends, such as green apple and parsley.
- Dip citrus segments into sweetened cream cheese dip or spread with your favorite roasted nut butter.
- Use citrus zest to add flavor to condiments.
- Add citrus segments to whole grain salads.
Some tips in using citrus fruits
- Heavy citrus fruits with firm rinds will have the most juice.
- Citrus fruits will stay freshest when wrapped in a plastic bag and stored in your refrigerator’s crisper drawer.
- Fresh-squeezed juice and citrus zest can be frozen for later use.
- When a recipe calls for strips of zest, a vegetable peeler works well. But for fluffy, grated zest, try using a microplane zester.
How to cut citrus fruit into segments:
Cut off the top and bottom of the fruit and stand it up on one end. Slice downward to cut away the skin and pith, moving around until all is removed. Holding the fruit over a bowl, slice along both sides of the membrane to release the segments.
Italian Kale Salad with Citrus Fruits
Lacinato kale is a variety of kale used in Italian cooking. It is also known as Tuscan kale, Tuscan cabbage, Italian kale, Dinosaur kale, cavolo nero, black kale, flat back cabbage, palm tree kale or black Tuscan palm. Lacinato kale has been grown in Tuscany for centuries. It is one of the traditional ingredients of minestrone and ribollita.
- 3 cups raw lacinato kale, stems removed, cut into strips 1 cm wide (measure after cutting)
- 2 tablespoons pine nuts or pumpkin seeds, lightly toasted
- 1/4 of a red onion, sliced thinly
- 2 tablespoons fresh goat cheese or feta cheese
- 1 grapefruit, peeled and cut into sections, dividing membranes removed
- 1 orange, peeled and cut into sections, dividing membranes removed
- Kosher salt and black pepper to taste
- 2 tablespoons lemon juice
- 2 tablespoons lemon zest
- 3 tablespoons olive oil
For the dressing:
Combine in a bottle or small bowl. Mix well before using.
For the salad:
Mix kale, pine nuts and onion in a large bowl. Season salad with salt and pepper. Cut goat or feta cheese into small pieces and mix into the salad.
Toss the salad with enough dressing to coat the leaves. Arrange grapefruit sections on the salad after it is put on the plate so they do not break.
Lemon Rice Soup with Tiny Meatballs
- 1/2 cup medium-grain white rice
- 3 cups water
- Kosher salt
- 4 cups chicken stock
- 2 large egg yolks
- 1/2 cup fresh lemon juice
- Freshly ground pepper
- 3/4 pound lean ground turkey or lamb
- 1/3 cup sweet onion, minced
- 2 teaspoons finely chopped mint, plus extra for garnishing
- 3 tablespoons finely chopped dill, plus dill sprigs for garnish
- 1 1/4 teaspoons finely grated lemon zest
- All-purpose flour, for dusting
In a large saucepan, cover the rice with the 3 cups of water, season with salt and bring to a boil. Simmer over moderate heat until the rice is tender and the water is nearly absorbed, about 15 minutes.
Transfer 1/2 cup of the rice to a blender and spread the remaining rice on a plate.
Add the chicken stock to the empty saucepan and bring to a simmer.
Add 1 cup of the hot stock to the blender with the rice, cover and puree until the rice is smooth. With the machine on, add the egg yolks and lemon juice and blend until smooth.
Season with salt and pepper. Stir the mixture into the hot stock and keep warm over low heat.
In a medium bowl, mix the meat with the onion, mint, 2 tablespoons of the dill, 1/4 teaspoon of the lemon zest, 2 teaspoons of kosher salt and 1/2 teaspoon of pepper.
Form the mixture into 1-inch balls. Lightly dust the meatballs with flour, tapping off any excess, and drop them into the warm soup.
Increase the heat to moderate and simmer until the meatballs are cooked through, 8 to 10 minutes. Stir in the reserved rice and the remaining 1 tablespoon of dill and 1 teaspoon of lemon zest and season with salt and pepper.
Ladle the soup into bowls, garnish with dill or mint and serve.
Lemon Gnocchi with Peas & Spinach
- 1 cup frozen peas
- 8 ounces heavy cream
- 1 clove garlic, smashed
- Fine Sea Salt
- 3 cups packed baby spinach leaves
- 1 teaspoon grated lemon zest
- 1 1/2 teaspoons fresh lemon juice
- 1 (1-pound) package Potato Gnocchi
- 1/4 cup Parmigiano-Reggiano, grated
In a large skillet, combine peas, cream, garlic and 1/4 teaspoon of salt. Cover and simmer for 5 minutes. Stir in spinach and cook uncovered until leaves are wilted. Remove pan from the heat and mix in lemon zest and juice.
Meanwhile, in a large pot, bring salted water to a boil. Add gnocchi and cook until they float to the top, about 4 minutes. Drain gnocchi, reserving 1/2 cup of the pasta water.
Mix the drained gnocchi with the cream sauce in the skillet. Add the reserved pasta water and stir to coat. Top with grated Parmigiano-Reggiano and serve.
Pork Chops with Orange & Fennel
- 3 navel oranges
- 1 teaspoon lemon juice
- 1/2 teaspoon sugar
- 1/2 teaspoon cornstarch
- 1/2 teaspoon salt, divided
- 4 – 4 ounce boneless pork chops, 1/2 inch thick, trimmed
- 2 teaspoons fennel seeds, roughly chopped or coarsely ground in a spice grinder
- 1/4 teaspoon freshly ground pepper
- 1 tablespoon extra-virgin olive oil
- 1 large fennel bulb, cored and thinly sliced
- 1 shallot, chopped
- 3 cups arugula, tough stems removed
Remove the skin and white pith from oranges with a sharp knife. Working over a bowl, cut the segments from their surrounding membranes. Squeeze juice in the bowl before discarding the membranes. Transfer the segments with a slotted spoon to another bowl. Whisk lemon juice, sugar, cornstarch and 1/4 teaspoon salt into the bowl with the orange juice. Set aside.
Season pork chops on both sides with fennel seeds and the remaining 1/4 teaspoon salt and pepper. Heat oil in a large nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add the chops and cook until browned and just cooked through, 2 to 3 minutes per side. Transfer to a plate and tent with foil to keep warm.
Add sliced fennel and shallot to the pan and cook, stirring, for 1 minute. Add arugula and cook, stirring, until it begins to wilt, 1 to 2 minutes more. Stir in the reserved orange segments, then transfer the contents of the pan to a large serving platter. Place the pork chops on top.
Add the reserved orange juice mixture to the pan. Cook, stirring constantly, until slightly thickened, about 1 minute. Pour over the pork chops and serve.
Lemon Olive Oil Cake
- 3/4 cup Extra Virgin olive oil
- 2 large eggs
- 1 cup plain Greek yogurt
- 1/4 cup lemon juice
- 1 cup granulated sugar
- 3 teaspoons baking powder
- 2 cups all-purpose flour
- 1 cup confectioner’s (powdered) sugar
- 1 tablespoon lemon juice, plus more to thin glaze
Preheat the oven to 350˚F. Grease a bundt pan with olive oil, then dust with flour.
In a large mixing bowl, combine oil, eggs, yogurt and lemon juice. Stir in sugar.
In another bowl, sift baking powder and flour. Once combined, slowly add the flour to the wet ingredients as you mix.
Pour batter into the pan and bake for about 40 minutes. Test with a toothpick for doneness. It should come out clean.
Remove cake from the oven and allow to rest. Once it has cooled, turn it onto a plate.
To create the icing, mix sugar and lemon juice together until smooth. Drizzle the over the cooled cake.
Serves 8 to 10
Tips To Make Your Baked Goods Better
Use Room-Temperature Ingredients
Many baked goods start by creaming together butter and sugar, which is made easier with warm ingredients. The exception – biscuits and pie dough need chilled butter to make a tender dough.
Invest in Quality Bakeware
Flimsy, thin pans and sheet trays won’t conduct heat efficiently, causing your cake, pie, cookies or pastries to bake unevenly.
Butter and Flour Your Pans Generously
When a recipe calls for a greased and/or floured pans, it’s for a reason: Your batter has the potential to stick to the pan and the cake will be difficult to get out of the pan in one piece.
Use Fresh Ingredients
The majority of ingredients used in baked goods—like baking soda, baking powder, yeast, and flour—have a relatively short shelf life, so if you don’t bake frequently, purchase them in small quantities so they don’t sit in your cupboard and become stale.
Measure Accurately or Weigh Ingredients
Successful baking means eliminating as much potential for error as possible and, that means, making sure your measurements are exact.
If you’re looking to cut down on the sodium, baked goods are not the place to do so. The half teaspoon of salt added to two dozen cookies won’t set you over your daily allotment, but leaving it out will drastically change the taste of the cookies.
Rotate Halfway Through Baking
Every oven has a hot spot, and if you don’t correct for it, you run the risk of unevenly cooked pastries—or worse, some that burn or wind up underbaked.Don’t, however, open the oven constantly to check on progress—it’ll lower the temperature and alter the baking time.
Pay attention to key instructions like “cream until light and fluffy,” “mix until just combined” and “fold in gently.” Otherwise, your end result will be dense and heavy.
- 1 1/2 cups white whole-wheat flour, plus additional for dusting
- 2 teaspoons baking powder
- 1/4 teaspoon sea salt
- 1/4 cup unsalted butter, well chilled and cut into pieces
- 1/2 cup whole milk
- 2 tablespoons chopped fresh chives
Preheat oven to 400°F. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper.
Sift the whole wheat flour to make sure there are no clumps.
In a food processor fitted with a steel blade, pulse flour, baking powder and salt until well combined.
Add cold butter and pulse until a fine crumb is formed, about 10 pulses.
Through the feed tube of the processor, drizzle in the milk and process until a ball of dough forms.
Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface and knead until no longer sticky; knead in the chives.
Press dough into an oval shape about 1/4-inch thick. Cut dough into 8 equal parts and place on prepared baking sheet. Bake until golden, 15 to 18 minutes.
- 1 cup all-purpose flour
- 1/2 cup white whole wheat flour
- 2 teaspoons baking powder
- 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper
- 1/2 cup butter, softened
- 1/2 cup packed brown sugar
- 1 cup mashed roasted butternut squash or 1 cup frozen cooked winter squash, thawed
- 1/4 cup finely chopped crystallized ginger
- 1 egg
- 1 teaspoon vanilla
- 1/3 cup milk
Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Line sixteen 2 1/2-inch muffin cups with paper bake cups; set aside.
In a medium bowl combine all-purpose flour, white whole wheat flour, baking powder, cinnamon, salt and cayenne pepper; set aside.
In a large bowl beat butter with an electric mixer on medium speed for 30 seconds. Add brown sugar; beat until combined. Add squash, ginger, egg and vanilla; beat until combined.
Alternately add the flour mixture and milk to the squash mixture, beating on low speed after each addition, just until combined.
Spoon batter into prepared muffin cups, filling each about two-thirds full.
Bake in the preheated oven about 20 minutes or until muffin tops spring back when lightly touched.
Cool in the muffin pan on a wire rack for 5 minutes. Remove muffins from the pan. Serve warm.
Walnut-Yogurt Zucchini Bread
- 1 cup walnut halves (4 ounces)
- 2 cups all-purpose flour
- 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
- 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
- 1/2 teaspoon salt
- 3/4 cup sugar
- 2 large eggs
- 1/2 cup olive oil
- 1/2 cup fat-free plain Greek yogurt
- 1 cup coarsely grated zucchini (from about 1 medium zucchini)
Preheat the oven to 325°F. Butter and flour a 9-by-4 1/2-inch loaf pan.
Spread the walnut halves in a pie plate and toast them for about 8 minutes, until very lightly brown. Transfer the toasted walnuts to a cutting board and coarsely chop them; then freeze for 5 minutes to cool.
In a large bowl, whisk the flour with the baking powder, baking soda and salt.
In a medium bowl, mix the sugar with the eggs, oil and yogurt. Add the wet ingredients to the dry ingredients along with the grated zucchini and toasted walnuts and stir until the batter is evenly moistened.
Pour the batter into the prepared pan and bake for about 1 hour and 10 minutes or until the loaf is risen and a toothpick inserted in the center comes out clean.
Let the loaf cool on a rack for 30 minutes before unmolding and serving.
Spinach Corn Muffins
- 1 cup old-fashioned rolled oats (or 3/4 cups oat flour)
- 1 cup cornmeal
- 2 teaspoons baking soda
- 1/4 teaspoon sea salt
- 2 eggs
- 3/4 cup buttermilk
- 1/4 cup honey
- 2 1/2 tablespoons olive oil
- 3 oz baby spinach, finely chopped
- 2 1/2 tablespoons sage leaves, minced
Preheat oven to 400°F. In a blender, blend oats to the consistency of flour.
In a large bowl, combine oat flour, cornmeal, baking soda and salt.
In a medium bowl, whisk eggs, buttermilk, honey and oil. Fold wet ingredients into dry ingredients and stir. Stir in spinach and sage.
Line 12 muffin cups with paper liners. Fill three-quarters full with the batter. Bake muffins for 15 minutes or until a toothpick comes out clean when inserted in center.
Let muffins cool in the pan for 5 minutes before removing to a wire rack to cool completely.
- All-purpose flour, for shaping dough
- 1 pound pizza dough from your supermarket or homemade and thawed if frozen
- 4 tablespoons olive oil, divided
- 4 garlic cloves, finely minced
- Coarse salt and ground pepper
Preheat oven to 400 degrees F.
On a lightly floured work surface, roll out dough into a 16 x 10-inch rectangle; with a knife or pizza cutter, cut crosswise into 16 strips.
Tie each strip into a knot and place on a large rimmed baking sheet. Brush knots with 1 tablespoon oil. Bake until golden, 15 to 20 minutes; transfer to a large bowl.
While the rolls are baking, heat garlic and the remaining 3 tablespoons oil in a small saucepan over medium heat until garlic, about 5 minutes.
Pour garlic and oil over the bread knots in bowl; season with salt and pepper and toss gently. Serve.