The exact history of quick bread is not known, but most quick breads were not developed until the 18th century, after the discovery of the first leavening agent, ‘pearlash’. The first published recipe to call for pearlash — a type of gingerbread — was published in 1796 by Amelia Simmons. It was the beginning of a chemical leavening revolution that would spread around the world.

The early colonists had hardwood forests as a resource. Aside from being a logical building material and fuel, hardwoods provided another important resource, ashes. Ashes were a major export two hundred years ago, both to Canada and Britain. They were valuable for sweetening gardens and for providing lye for making soap. They were also a source of potash and its derivative, pearlash, which proved to be a leavening agent.

To make pearlash, you first have to make potash and to make potash, you first have to make lye. To make lye, you pass water through a barrel of hardwood ashes over and over. To make potash, you evaporate the lye water until you have a solid. Pearlash is a purified version of potash. It is an alkaline compound and when paired with an acidic ingredient, such as sour milk, buttermilk or molasses, will produce carbon dioxide bubbles, the very same thing that yeast produces. Pearlash was used primarily in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but because of its bitter aftertaste, it not did not replace yeast and was eventually replaced by saleratus (baking soda).

Baking soda comes from several sources, but the bulk of it is derived from an ore called “trona” which is mined in the Green River Basin in Wyoming. (Technology is being developed now to produce baking soda from sea water.)

When baking soda is heated, it slowly breaks down into sodium carbonate, water and carbon dioxide. When mixed with something acidic and wet, it starts producing carbon dioxide right away without waiting to be heated.

The next step after developing baking soda (which only worked when there was something acidic in a batter) was to create a “combination” powder which just needed to get wet to become active. To do this, baking soda was combined with a powdered acid, along with a little cornstarch, to keep the two dry and inactive. Scientists next added a second powder, cream of tartar, (a fruit acid that accumulates on the inside of wine casks as a wine matures) to the combination.  When baking soda and cream of tartar are moistened in a batter or dough, they begin to react to each other right away producing carbon dioxide bubbles.

This combination powder is still a very effective leavening agent, although it has a couple of drawbacks. It is “single acting, meaning that when it’s mixed into a batter or dough, it starts and finishes its reaction then and there. When you bake with it, you must get whatever you’re making into a preheated oven as quickly as possible before the bubbles begin to disappear. The second drawback is, that no matter how dry these combination powders are kept, they lose their potency after a short time.

Double acting baking powder is single acting baking powder taken one step further. The baking soda is still there, but the cream of tartar has been replaced by two acids, one like cream of tartar that reacts to the baking soda as soon as it’s wet and the other agent that doesn’t begin to react until it’s heated. This means you can be more leisurely about getting a dough or batter into the oven.

Like single acting baking powder, double acting baking powder contains a little cornstarch to prevent the baking soda and acids from reacting. However, it too will lose its leavening ability after about six months. Baking powder should be stored at room temperature in a dry place. A cabinet or pantry away from the sink or heat source is a perfect place. Do not store baking powder in the refrigerator, as it may shorten the shelf life due to condensation that occurs on the can.

Make Your Own Baking Powder

If you have run out of baking powder you may be able to make a substitution by using the following:  for one teaspoon baking powder = mix 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar plus 1/4 teaspoon baking soda. If you are not using the mixture immediately, add 1/4 teaspoon cornstarch to absorb any moisture in the air and to prevent a premature chemical reaction between the acid and alkali.

When baking powder was fairly new, bakers felt that it was going to replace yeast for all bread baking. It produced the same gas that yeast did (carbon dioxide) and its action was indeed “quick” compared to that of yeast. It has, in fact, replaced yeast as a leavening agent for cakes almost entirely, but not in bread dough. Quick breads cover a wide range of baked goods from biscuits and scones that are made from a dough,to muffins and loaves that are made from a batter. They can be large or small, savory or sweet. The major thing that identifies them is the fact that they are, as their name implies, quick to make.

Quick breads can be made from many kinds of ingredients. Banana bread and pumpkin bread are popular, but for the gardener with too much zucchini, a good zucchini bread recipe is a great way to use up some of that surplus squash. Zucchini, a green striped squash with a sweet flavor, is excellent to use in a quick bread. Modern squash, like zucchini, are descendants of plants that were first cultivated around 10,000 years ago, in what is today Mexico and Guatemala. Evidence suggests these ancient squash were originally grown for their seeds before eventually being bred as a vegetable. Shortly after Europeans arrived in the Americas, they began bringing squash back to Europe. The Italians are credited with breeding today’s modern zucchini from the original American squash.

How to keep your Zucchini Bread healthy:

  • Substituting whole wheat flour for white flour adds fiber and you’ll get about 3 grams of fiber in each serving.
  • Applesauce is a naturally fat-free ingredient that can be substituted for oil in many recipes.
  • Yogurt, an excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, riboflavin (vitamin B2) and iodine, is another ingredient that can be substituted for some of the oil in recipes.
  • Use sugar (Truvia or Domino Light) and whole egg substitutes (Egg Beaters) to reduce fat and calories in baked goods.
  • Zucchini is the low-calorie, naturally fat-free secret ingredient and hidden vegetable in the recipes below. A cup of zucchini used in a recipe contributes essential nutrients and keeps the bread moist.
  • Add nuts. They are lower in saturated fats, higher in mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids and an excellent source of omega-3 essential fatty acids.

Zucchini Chip Bread

Ingredients:

  • 3 cups all-purpose flour (or 1-1/2 cups whole wheat pastry flour and 1-1/2 cups of all-purpose flour.
  • 3/4 cups sugar or sugar substitute blend equivalent to 3/4 cups of sugar
  • 1 teaspoon baking soda
  • 1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • 1/4 teaspoon baking powder
  • 3/4 cup refrigerated egg substitute
  • 1/2 cup unsweetened applesauce
  • 1/2 cup canola oil
  • 1 tablespoon finely shredded orange peel
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla
  • 2 cups shredded zucchini
  • 1 cup chopped walnuts, toasted
  • 1 cup semisweet chocolate pieces

Directions:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Grease bottom and 1/2 inch up the sides of two 8x4x2-inch loaf pans. Set aside.

In a large bowl combine flour, sugar, baking soda, nutmeg, salt, cinnamon and baking powder. In a small bowl combine egg substitute, applesauce, oil, orange peel and vanilla; add to flour mixture. Stir until just moistened. Fold in zucchini, walnuts and chocolate pieces.

Divide mixture evenly between the two prepared pans. Bake about 55 minutes or until a toothpick inserted near centers comes out clean. Cool in pans on a wire rack 10 minutes. Remove bread from pans and cool completely on wire racks. For easier slicing, wrap and store overnight before serving. Makes 2 loaves (24 servings).

Vegan Gluten Free Zucchini Bread

Wet Ingredients:

  • 2 cups grated fresh zucchini
  • 1 cup organic applesauce
  • 3/4 cups granulated sugar
  • 1/2 cup canola oil
  • 1 tablespoon vanilla extract
  • 1 tablespoon apple cider vinegar

Dry Ingredients:

  • 1 cup white sorghum flour
  • 1 cup gluten free all purpose flour (Bob’s Red Mill or King Arthur)
  • 2 teaspoons baking soda
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1 teaspoon cinnamon
  • 1 teaspoon xanthan gum

Directions:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F.

In a large mixing bowl, combine zucchini, applesauce, sugar, oil, vanilla and apple cider vinegar.

Whisk together the dry ingredients in a separate bowl and sprinkle over the wet ingredients. Mix thoroughly.

Pour batter into a lightly greased (9×5) loaf pan.

Bake for 50 minutes or until a toothpick inserted in the center of the loaf comes out clean.

Cool for 10 minutes before removing from the pan. Place the bread on a cooling rack and allow to cool completely before serving.

Zucchini-Carrot Muffins

Yield: 12 muffins

Ingredients:

  • 2 cups all-purpose flour (or 1 cup of all purpose flour and 1 cup of whole wheat pastry flour)
  • 3/4 teaspoon baking soda
  • 3/4 teaspoon baking powder
  • 1/2 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground ginger
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • 1 pinch ground cloves
  • 2 eggs or 1/2 cup refrigerated egg substitute
  • 1/2 cup vegetable oil
  • 3/4 cups sugar or sugar substitute equivalent
  • 1 small zucchini, shredded (3/4 cup)
  • 1 small carrot, grated (1/2 cup)
  • 1/2 cup sunflower seeds

Directions:

Heat oven to 350 degree F. Coat the wells of a standard-sized (12)  muffin pan with nonstick cooking spray.

Whisk together flour, baking soda, baking powder, salt, ginger, cinnamon and cloves in a large bowl.

Mix eggs, oil and sugar in a medium-size bowl. Whisk for 30 seconds to dissolve sugar. Stir in shredded zucchini and carrot.

Stir egg mixture into flour mixture. Stir in sunflower seeds. Divide batter equally among muffin cups, a slightly heaping 1/4 cup in each.

Bake for 23 to 25 minutes or until lightly browned. Remove from pan to wire racks to cool.

Zucchini Pancakes

Ingredients:

  • 1 pound zucchini, shredded
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 cup finely chopped red onion
  • 1/2 cup finely shredded Parmesan cheese
  • 1/2 cup white whole wheat flour
  • 1/2 cup refrigerated egg substitute
  • 1 tablespoon extra virgin olive oil plus 1 teaspoon extra virgin olive oil
  • 1/4 teaspoon garlic powder
  • 1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper
  • Nonstick cooking spray
  • 1/4 cup light dairy sour cream with chives (optional)

Directions:

Combine the zucchini and salt in a large bowl. Let stand 30 minutes. Place zucchini in a strainer and press firmly with a rubber spatula to force out water.

Combine zucchini, 1/2 cup red onion, the Parmesan cheese, flour, egg, 1 tablespoon olive oil, garlic powder and pepper in a large bowl. If the batter is not thick enough to hold together, add a little more flour, one tablespoon at a time, until the mixture is the right consistency.

Lightly coat a large skillet or griddle with nonstick cooking spray. Add 1 teaspoon olive oil to skillet and heat over medium heat. Using 1/4 cup zucchini mixture per pancake, drop zucchini mixture onto hot skillet, leaving 2 to 3 inches between mounds. Flatten mounds to about 1/2-inch thickness. Cook pancakes about 4 minutes or until golden brown, carefully turning once halfway through cooking.

Keep pancakes warm in a 300 degree F oven while cooking the remaining pancakes. If desired, top pancakes with sour cream .

Zucchini Scones

Ingredients:

  • 1 1/2 cups all-purpose flour
  • 1 cup white whole wheat flour
  • 3 tablespoons sugar
  • 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
  • 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg
  • 1/4 teaspoon baking soda
  • 1/4 teaspoon salt
  • 1/4 cup butter, cut up into small pieces
  • 1/2 cup refrigerated egg substitute or 2 eggs, lightly beaten
  • 1/2 cup buttermilk
  • 1 cup shredded zucchini
  • 1/2 cup miniature semisweet chocolate chips or finely chopped pecans

Directions:

Preheat oven to 400 degrees F.

In a large bowl,  stir together all-purpose flour, whole wheat flour, sugar, baking powder, cinnamon, nutmeg, baking soda and salt. Using a pastry blender, cut in butter until mixture resembles coarse crumbs. Make a well in center of the flour mixture.

In a small bowl, combine egg and buttermilk; stir in zucchini and chocolate pieces or pecans. Add the buttermilk mixture all at once to the flour mixture. Using a fork, stir just until moistened.

Turn dough out onto a lightly floured surface. Knead dough by folding and gently pressing it for 10 to 12 strokes or until nearly smooth. Pat or lightly roll dough into an 8-inch circle. Cut dough circle into 12 wedges.

Place dough wedges, 2 inches apart, on ungreased baking sheets. Bake for 13 to 15 minutes or until edges are light brown. Remove scones from the baking pans and cool on a wire rack. Serve warm. Makes 12 scones. Scones freeze and reheat well.

Zucchini Cornbread

Ingredients:

  • 1/2 cup (1 stick) unsalted butter or butter alternative, such as Smart Balance (or 1/4 cup butter and 1/4 cup applesauce)
  • 2 large eggs, lightly beaten or 1/2 cup refrigerated egg substitute
  • 1/2 cup buttermilk
  • 1 large zucchini (about 10 ounces)
  • 1 cup all-purpose flour
  • 1/2 cup whole wheat flour
  • 1/2 cup sugar or sugar substitute equivalent
  • 1 teaspoon baking powder
  • 3/4 teaspoon fine sea salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon baking soda
  • 3/4 cup medium-grind cornmeal

Directions:

Position a rack in the middle of oven and preheat to 350° F. Coat a 9 x 5 x 3″ loaf pan with cooking spray.

Melt the butter in a small saucepan over medium-high heat or in the microwave. Set aside and let cool. Whisk in (applesauce if using) eggs and buttermilk.

Trim zucchini ends. Thinly slice five 1/8″ rounds from 1 end of the zucchini and reserve for garnish. Coarsely grate remaining zucchini. Add to the bowl with the butter mixture and stir until well blended.

Sift both flours, sugar, baking powder, salt and baking soda into a large bowl. Whisk in cornmeal. Add zucchini mixture; fold just to blend (mixture will be very thick). Transfer batter to prepared pan and smooth top. Place reserved zucchini slices on top of the batter down the center in a single layer.

Bake bread until golden and a tester inserted into the center comes out clean, 55-65 minutes. Let cool in pan 10 minutes. Remove from pan; let cool completely on a wire rack. Store airtight at room temperature.

Zucchini Cake with Cream Cheese Frosting

Ingredients:

  • 2 cups all-purpose flour
  • 2 teaspoons baking soda
  • 1 teaspoon salt
  • 1/4 teaspoon baking powder
  • 3 teaspoons ground cinnamon
  • 6 egg whites
  • 1 cup natural applesauce
  • 1 1/2 cups white sugar or sugar substitute equivalent
  • 2 cups grated zucchini
  • 2 teaspoons vanilla extract
  • 1 cup finely chopped walnuts

Cream Cheese Frosting

  • 12 ounces reduced fat cream cheese
  • 3/4 cups confectioners’ sugar
  • 1 ½ teaspoons vanilla extract

Directions:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees F. Lightly grease a 13×9 inch baking pan.

Combine egg whites, applesauce, sugar, grated zucchini and vanilla in the bowl of an electric mixer. Beat until well mixed.

Combine the flour, baking soda, salt, baking powder and cinnamon in a large measuring cup and add to the egg mixture. Mix on low speed until just combined. Fold in the walnuts with a spatula.

Pour batter into prepared pan. Bake for 45 minutes.

To make the frosting:

Beat cream cheese, confectioners’ sugar and vanilla in the bowl with an electric mixer on medium speed until smooth. Spread on the top of the cake. Chill before serving.

About these ads